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My Strawberry Bed. Written for.Green’s Fruit Grower by chel Denmead.

My Friend, did you ever enthuse Over, planting a bed—and refuse he berries in boxes— So often such hoaxes? If you did—you’re the chum I shall choose.

Say, look, aren’t those strawberries sweet? How they glorify earth at your feet!

What sort of a sinner

Would not come to a dinner With such wonders as that for a treat?

Such nearly delicious pink fruit! The angels in heaven they'd suit. | Why—they’d turn down ambrosia, And surely propose you For membership up there, to boot! My! but they’re luscious and firm, And I wish I could find fitting term To describe them—a poet Might long seek to do it, And then feel himself a poor worm. Yes—your heart leaps exultant at last When the blossoms, like snowflakes have passed And you see the first showing— More rose each day glowing— Til the hour when you break your long fast! BES LAE

Arbor Day in a Country School.

Written for Green’s Fruit Grower by

F. Huntley.

The celebration of Tree or Arbor Day in most schools, consists of a program of stories, poems and quotations bout trees ae plants, with instruction ana information regarding their nature or their care. This with a half holiday is the custom in the city schools. The janitor cares for the lawn and flowers, and the grounds were “laid out’’ some years ago by a hired gardener who planted what trees and shrubs the lot would accommodate.

But in the district school all is different. Here where we might expect a natural little grove or a bed of wild flowers, we generally find a bare lot, unfenced, cleared of every tree and shrub, and growing up to weeds or wild grass. In our district this was certainly the case. But we had one man who called himself a horticul- turist. He was greatly interested in all forms of plant life and his howe abounded in fruit trees, shrubs and flowers. He determined to avail himself of the use of Arbor Day to do something for the school.

He first talked his plans over with the teacher and secured her co-operation. Then he visited the school and talked to the children. He proposed a picnic for the day, to be held at the school house, to which the whole family was invited. Each child was requested to bring a tree or shrub, vine or flower to be planted on the school grounds; and he offered to furnish a tree to any child who could not bring something from home or from the woods near by. He gave careful instruc- tions how to dig the trees, so as not to break the roots, how to notice their posi- tion regarding the points of the compass so that they would have the same direc- tion in their new home, and also sug- gested good varieties for transplanting. He made a plan of the grounds and placed a rough sketch on the board showing the value of grouping shrubbery at the corners and leaving open spaces for playground or for picnic tables.

The response was enthusiastic. Thirty trees were planted and many flowering shrubs. Some children brought bulbs and seeds; others perennials from their own gardens.

School opened at ten o’clock that morn- ing and the entire district was presént. Farmers drove in with the whole family, bringing spades and hoes, rakes and trowels. After the morning spent in gardening, all were ready for dinner, and the afternoon was devoted to exercises by the school.

This custom became a permanent one and now there is a splendid row of trees bordering our grounds—maples alter- nating with evergreens. Vines are climb- ing up the brick walls, while crocus and tulips, peonies, bleeding-heart, _ lilies, phlox and other old-fashioned flowers

form gay patches of color in different parts of the lawn. There is not so much planting now, but more gardening and cultivating on Arbor Day.

Our grounds have the reputation of being the best in the county, which is a matter of great pride with us, but more than that, the holiday has come to take its place in our affections with Memorial Day and the Fourth of July.


The Asparagus Bed.—An old asparagus bed can be renewed in vigor by covering it freely with stable manure in late fall or early winter, leaving the manure there to leach out into the soil all winter, re- moving the coarse part ‘in the spring, such as would impede the cultivator. When spring comes cultivate, but not to deep, with the horse cultivator, and clear out the weeds and grass with a hoe, being careful not to cut off the new growth which springs up very early in the spring. Perhaps it would be better to weed the patch out by hand rather.than to en- danger cutting off the young shoots. A slight scattering of salt along the row woulddonoharm. Salt issupposed to be a special fertilizer for asparagus. Every

year I start a few new rows of asparagus.

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Some Good Things In This Issue

‘*Possibilities of the Blackberry’’ - -

C.A.Green 1

‘*Fruit Bud Formation’’ - - Prof. H. E. Van Deman

**How to Grow Peaches’”’ - - - D.V. Pike 9

‘**American Crops are Threatened”’ Wilmington, Del. News

‘*My Father’s Hilly Farm’’ C.A.Green 1

‘Fertilizers For Asparagus’’ - - - C.P.Cole 16

‘*A Visit to the Old Home’’ - - - J.H. Smith

‘*The Story of the Khaki Suit’’ - Walter Scott Haskell 32

‘*That Grand Old Cherry Tree’’ - - C.A.Green 4

‘‘Fruit Farm Notes’’ - - - - - E.H. Burson 8

**A Child’s Financial Education’’ Bertha A. De Motte

‘*Grapes and Poultry For the Smali Hor-’’ M. Roberts Conover 28

‘*Design For Bed of Flowering Shru»s’’ - C.A.Green 24

**Ol’ Nutmeg’s Sayings’”’ . - - - Joe Cone 28

JohnH. Beaty 2

**Stories For Ambitious Young Fruit G-ovwers’’

‘*Small Fruits For Garden and Field’’ - John E. Taylor

‘‘A Bank of Apple Trees’’ - . . Calvin Forbes 2

‘**How to Prune Peach Trees’ - . J.S.Underwood 7

‘‘An Easy Test For Dirty Milk’’ - - - W.R. Wright

‘‘Getting 3000 Quarts of Raspberries to the Acre” John E. Taylor

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= A Garden of Roses for You


+Ser . 4 ___ This is the finest of all roses for summer bloom-

SS 4 1. Climbing Beauty ing. It is literally loaded with deep, rich red ) flowers of about the same size, color and fragrance as the American Beauty. In

x} 2 single season these plants will grow from fifteen to twenty feet. This is the

AX) ideal of all red climbing roses. It blooms almost all the time and is just the

2 rose to train up the porch or around the windows where its beauty will show up

= toa splendid advantage.

ore 7 Ami Bessant—* handsome new rose of vigorous habit of growth,

Ds : with large, full flowers. Color rosy flesh, on yellow a ground shaded with a border of carmine. The flowers are sometimes as much ry as five inches in diameter.

3 Olivia—!*: ideal red bedding rose. A shade lighter in color than the

lle Climbing Beauty. This rose gives splendid variety to the as- ‘S33 sortment and is big value in itself.

oS - ___ This isav« y beautiful hybrid tea rose. The color @ 4. Rose Killarney is an exquisite shade of deep shell-pink. The base A} of the petal is silvery white, the buds are long and beautifully formed. Itisafree

Z\) grower with strong, heavy shoots covered with buds. The Ever-blooming Rose

4 still later.

NG Killarney has won a very warm place in the hearts of all flower lovers. Itis PR 3 difficult to imagine a more beautiful plant. rs) 1. 4 ___Color a brilliant carmine, displaying beautiful pink tints in

Ps * Radiance- ov open = The flowers are large and full, with cup- Be 7 ° r ° x * F White Cochet_7™ queen of all white garden roses. Unusual free- ry om si dom of bloom, magnificent form of buds andflowers. (4 SA The flowers are large and double, with petals of unusually luxuriant growth and i ea heavy texture. ae ry e r} We Want You to Have Them—{ivo ri ind es a pperdeller 4 By enter your subscription for three years and send you the six beautiful rose bushes By 73) all charges prepaid to your door and will send at the right time for planting. (Qp ~~ But your order must be sent at once. We can only secure a limited number of PX these beautiful varieties. So send at once. e e— eo. 4} GREEN’S FRUIT GROWER CO., Rochester, N. Y. & oi 19 (oC, roy ns (% a Ye Py) Di 8OA (Ce = Ct Oa, ry prey 6 Ob CO 5 OES re Bl ore tk ee: SEO <> OUx ie)

The Quince and Smaller Fruit Written for Green’s Fruit Grower hy : bert E. Vassar. The Quince is sure our heart’s delight F ice Quinces. But oh, the price is out of sight On Quinces. To eat by hand, oh, goodness sake! A second bite we wouldn’t take; But oh the fine preserves they mak: With Quinces. Strawberries “Strawberries’’ hear the huckster shout, , Just see’ the ladies coming out, The very word does catch the ear, And on the table, how they cheer. Gooseberries. Gooseberries when made into pies Are rather nice we always find Not quite so tart as currants, they Are better liked and better pay, And keep the longer, bear in mind, Raspberries. A sister to all berries that Do grow on bushes, oh What fine preserves, both red and black; If ‘‘dished whole’’ how they go. * Blackberries. Favorite Dish and sweet and fair they will always bring the price.

Seller sure

And everywhere

The folks do like ’em when they’re nice, Currants.

They’re rather tart and some do like Them better than I really do, I’m fond of sweet things only and I guess I'll quit and bid adieu.

iis area renee Quinces and Strawberries.

Editor Green’s Fruit Grower:—The writer has recently taken up fruit culture late in life, and has found inspiration, information and encouragement in your valuable publication.

I have two quince bushes, which blossom freely every year. Fruit sets and grows to about one-fourth normal size, and then dies and drops off. The more vigorous bush has never matured fruit, the other about half a dozen. Both have beep infested with aphides and ants. I have

J neg, Ate them with various sprays but YW the

enefits are brief. Some years the new growth of wood died and was removed by pruning. The soil is a dry loam with hard pan subsoil, the product of glacial action, therefore very compact a foot below the surface, while the surface is mellow and fertile. The location is nearly 1200 feet above sea level. What treatment shall I give these quinces to make them bear fruit?

For several years I have been trying to kill chickweed which grows luxuriantly on some land where I desire to plant strawberries. How can it be done? | have now selected another site for my strawberries. Kindly recommend anearly variety and one that matures later, so as to prolong the season during which to enjoy this delicious fruit. _How far apart should they be planted, how cultivated and treated? When is the best tire to set strawberry plants, spring or fall?— Irving H. Palmer, N. Y.

Reply: Your soil does not seem adapt- ed to the quince. I have never seen plant lice on quince bushes. The remedy for plant lice is kerosene emulsion. Ants do not injury as they simply feed upon the sweets exuded by the lice. The quince tree is most often injured by the severe freezing of winter as quince roots are near the surface. The remedy is to cover the soil above the bush with strawy manure.

I know of no remedy for chickweed and would not plant ‘strawberries where chickweed is present or likely to be pre- sent. Senator Dunlap is a good early variety of strawberry, Corsican and Bissel are later varieties, and Brandywine The rows should be 3} or 4 feet apart. The cultivation consists mainly of keeping the ground free from weeds and grass and covering the plants with a light shading of strawy manure 48 winter approaches. Set strawberry plants in April, May or June, or as early as the ground will work well.

o- Male Asparagus Plants.

A subscriber in Tennessee asks where he can secure male plants of Palmetto asparagus.

eply: I have long been a grower of asparagus. I find that most of my aspari gus plants are male asparagus, whit may * known by their vigor, as I assume the female plant is delicate and spindling and does not amount to much, not being

._productive, therefore if you buy 100 roots

of asparagus of the average grower neatly all of these plants will male or pro ductive plants.

—_——_~-"" Lilacs and Peaches. j Green’s Fruit Grower :—What can I d0 to prevent my lilac bush from sprouting up from the root? All around the Dus the ground is full of suckers as thick they can come up. ; - At what time do you thin your peae and how large should peaches be oe time of thinning?—C. A. Church, Ny Reply The only way of getting * at the lilac shoots or sprouts is to cut t out as fast as they come up. : the' The sooner peaches are thinned “7 better. They should be thinned be or when they are half size. -

Ido n



I am not

e interest 4 desirable My earliest was a Wild b! porder of t farm. <A gre down throu wild blackt along the t1 and pick ps the bushes t! all I could ¢ the thorny were of larg seemed all ti since they ¥ and quality had fallen fo loose and fu as the blac! leaves tha fallen the sea fore furnis desirable therefore the blackberries gowing in @ situation.

I can neve! avisit to A. . wood at M: m the Hu River, N. Y. ago to See 1F ing there hi blackberry Minnewaska. had dug a four or five fe and almost a: carting awa hard subsoil replacing it the best sc could secure, ¢ sandy, loamy such as the berry pre! though it wil ceed in almos soil. With foot or two « he would a layer of well- barnyard =m: On this deepl pared bed he p! four or five N waka black plants. Dire over the black plants he bv ellis eight » exten futher than trench exten At the time ¢ visit this big t oo than Mdinary gra tovered wie vhich canes °

Thad never before of a ma linewaska, 1 ¥8 not notabl ttatinny, El as, The ma dant yield of t Were owing te

Moving of the ¢

the soil in w


Ifyou are al Ire to get, t]

Stonish your Yourself and y

Jou dig a tren and make

ftood attache “ywood’s plan Mill secure fro

ants a reason “ee family, ot ment , . Caywood Ty growing,

thrive on almo MY circumst ant

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f , é be plantati ‘et not many

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wer :—The Lit culture, aspiration, it in your

ch blossom and grows », and then 2 vigorous the other rave been s. I have prays but years the is removed loam with of glacial ct a foot surface is cation is rel. What quinces to

2en trying uxuriantly to plant done? | te for my nd an early ater, SO as which to y far apart cultivated st. tire to or fall?—

em adapt- seen plant emedy for ion. Ants d upon the ‘he quince the severe roots are is to cover th strawy

kweed and ies where to be pre- ‘ood early ican and randywine be 34 or 4

consists free from the plants manure a8 srry plants rly as the

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grower of ny aspara- us, whic 3 I assume -spindling not being 7 100 roots ver neatly le or pro

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A ‘Monthly Magazine for the Fruit Growing Farmer and His Family GREEN, .


Volume 34


Y., APRIL, 1914

Number 4

POSSIBILITY OF.THE BLACKBERRY New Methods of Culture By C. A. Green

| am not surprised that many people are interested in the blackberry for it is s desirable fruit, a marvelous fruit. My earliest recollection of the blackberry was a Wild blackberry patch on the eastern porder of the woodland on my father’s farm. A great maple tree had been blown down through the center_of this little yild blackberry I could walk gong the trunk of this great fallen tree and pick pails full of blackberries from the bushes that overhung the tree, getting all | could carry without descehding into the thorny bushes. These wild berries were of large size and of fine quality and gemed all to have sprung from one plant since they were all alike in size, texture and quality. The decay of leaves that had fallen for centuries had made this so‘l loose and full of humus, just such a soil gs the blackberry delights in, and the leaves that had fallen the season be- fre furnished a desirable mulch, therefore these wild blackberries were gowing in an ideal situation.

Ican never forget avisit to A. J. Cay- wood at Marlboro m the Hudson River, N. Y., years ago to see in fruit- ing there his new blackberry named Minnewaska. He hd dug a trench four or five feet deep and almost as wide, carting away the hard subsoil and replacing it with the best soil he could secure, a light, sandy, loamy soil such as the black- brry prefers, though it will suc- ced in almost any sil. With every foot or two of soil he would add a layer of well-rotted arnyard manure. 0n this deeply pre- pared bed he planted four or five Minne- waka blackberry plants. Directly over the blackberry plants he built a trellis eight feet

sipping the fruit of the blackberry you may know that it is fully ripe.’”’ At this period, when the blackberry is ripe, the fruit is soft and the entire oth is Juicy and sweet. Most people pick black- berries when they are green and eat them when they are green and sour, thus not one person in a hundred has ever eaten fully ripened blackberries. What a pity that the majority of our people, and particularly city people, know so little about fruits and are not able to get good fruit to eat, not knowing how to select it, and having no knowledge of the pecul- iarities of different varieties some being worth many times as much per quart or bushel as other varieties of proved quality.

The blackberry must not be trimmed like the red raspberry, or like the grape or the black cap or af If you attack the rows of blackberry canes with

» extending futher than the tench extended. At the time of my visit this big trellis, linger than any inary grape trellis, was completely tovered with blackberry canes, all of vhich canes were heavily laden with lige and luscious blackberries. had never seen such a sight as this fore of a marvelous yield, and yet the linnewaska variety, though valuable, Was not notably larger than the Lawton, Kittatinny, Eldorado and others of that Hass, The marvelous growth and abun- dant yield of these few blackberry plants Were owing to the deep trenching, re- hoving of the subsoil and the enrichment the soil in which the blackberries were fowing. If you are a lover of the blackberry and ‘sire to get the best possible result, to Stonish your neighbors, and to delight jouself and your family, I advise that Ju dig a trench such as I have spoken i and make a trellis of wire or strips Wood attached to posts, and follow Mr. py wood Splan. My opinion is that you ill Secure from five or six blackberry tants a reasonable supply of fruit for a ind family, whereas if grown in the ere y way you might need fifty plants. Mt hot mention this laborious system be t. Caywood’s as a necessity in black- TY growing, for the blackberry will ne, almost any soil under ost ¥ circumstances and will yield a liberal ey of fruit. Wve 20%, @ poet and fruit grower, og plantation was on the Hudson : ‘Not many years ago, said there is .y One way of telling when the black- "Y is ripe. “When you find the bees

bushes will furnish fruit

blackberries through the center of the garden embracing from 25 to 50 plants will give a bountiful supply for an o

for a small family.

your pruner, cutting off a foot or two of the tops of the canes, or even six inches, at the close of the growing season or during winter, you will cut off a large portion of the fruit that those canes which you have removed would have borne. The blackberry in this respecu is something like certain ornamental shrubs, like the Golden Bell for instance, which if you cut off the ends of the shoots you will remove the buds that will make the blossoms of the coming year. If you wish to make the blackberry bush branch out low down near the earth, you should cut off or nip off with your thumb nail the tip of the plant when it is 18 inches high or two feet, according to the height you desire the branches to-start. By this method you will not be destroying any of the fruit buds of the next year’s crop, as you would if you allowed the canes to attain their full height and then cut off a foot or two from the top. I believe there are few fruit growers who

‘have made this discovery as to the neces-

sity of caution in pruning blackberries. I was not aware of it myself until my Supt., Mr. Burson, made the discovery at Green’s Fruit Farm. You see the advantage of a fruit growing editor having a fruit farm to experiment with. Green’s Fruit Farm is in fact an experiment sta- tion, reports from which are published monthly in Green s Fruit Grower and are scattered broadcast far more widely than any reports eminating from the experi- ment stations. .Green’s Fruit Grower has in this respect been worth millions

of dollars to this country in carrying important information to fruit growers, and inducing men and women to plant fruits, thus enriching the country.

The blackberry is in active demand in the market. I have never known of a surplus of blackberries in the Rochester market, which is in the center of one of the greatest fruit regions of the world. It ripens after the strawberries and rasp- berries are gone and is almost alone among the small fruits of the market stalls.

The blackberry is a wholesome berry, as is shown by the fact that blackberry cordial is so highly esteemed that it is often prescribed by physicians in certain diseases. Blackberry pies, jams, pre- serves and fresh blackberries on the table with cream and sugar are the delight of myriads of families of this great country.

Not all blackberries are hardy enough even for western New York during the most severe winters. When the tem- perature goes down as low as twenty degrees below zero at Rochester, N. Y.,

hill overlooking the country for many miles around. The shape of this farm is something like the back of a very fat pig, rounding to the center and sloping off at either side and at both ends, embracing over 200 acres. This is an ideal lay of land for —- or fruit growing as it sheds not only the water but the frost of late spring and early autumn and is a healthier place in which to live than the low lands. I felt like saying that my father showed great wisdom in selecting such a favorable site for his farm home.

I shall always remember this farm home on which I was born as a paradise for fruit growing. Its orchard, which seemed large to me as a child, embracing not over four or five acres, was ever filled with beautiful and luscious specimens of —- and the fruit garden directly in the rear of the house was well stocked with large, beautiful and delicious plums, with currants, gooseberries, cherries. There was a row of pear trees in this

arden and many peach trees, which were eavily laden each season. If this farm

ad been located in a valley it might have produced more hay or but it would not have been so valuable for fruit growing.

As I looked over the different fields, all of which are as familiar to me as the rooms of the house in which I live, I could not see much diminishing of fer- tility in the soil though this land has been under culti- vation and extensive cropping under a wasteful system for nearly a hundred

ears. I could not

elp noticing that the low lands, which in old times were wet, needing drain- age, had become drier as the years had gone by and were now in con- dition to be culti- vated and sown to grain though the fields had not been tile drained.

This homestead farm is located about twelve miles south of Rochester in a country made up of hills and valleyswith here and there a

Blackberries have ever been a favorite fruit of the housewife as grown in the garden, or in larger plantations grown for the market. It is not difficult to grow blackberries, once planted the plantation should last ten or more years. Select hardy varieties like Snyder, Eldorado, or Blowers. One row of

the half-hardy blackberries such as Law- ton, Kittatinny, Wilson’s Early, and others of that class, are liable to be injured while Taylor, Agawam, Stone’s Hardy and Snyder will pass through the winters successfully. I have never known a winter so severe as to injure the Snyder, which is a type of hardy blackberry. Eldorado has never been injured by winter at Green’s Fruit Farm.

A plantation of blackberries will remain in bearing ten years or more with proper cultivation. The rows should be at least seven feet apart in order to permit of thorough cultivation. As the years pass the plants will straggle somewhat from the rows in which they were planted, and for this reason there should be more distance between the rows than is usually given to raspberries or other similar fruits. I have never yet known any

erson to feel that he had given his black- eevios too much space between the rows. Usually he gives them too little space.

oO" My Father’s Hilly Farm.

Every season I make a pilgrimage to the homestead farm where I was born. This farm long since passed into strange hands. Yesterday I rode out to this homestead farm which will ever have for me great attractions. As the poet has said, It is the home of my childhood, that beautiful spot, which memory re- tains when all else is forgot.”

As I approached the farm from the north I could see it when nearly a mile away, for this farm is located on a high


wood lot, with num- erous orchards, with many trees growing along the roadsides, all tending to make one of the most beau- tiful sections of New York state, which is famous for its beauty no matter where you go. If you will compare this hilly section with long stretches of prairie as seen in Dakota and other parts of the middle west you will concede at once that the hilly country, the wooded country, the countr dotted with orchards, is the most beautiful. The apple trees which I planted on the old farm when a boy seem to be in their prime. They are making a_ healthy rowth and last season were filled with ne specimens of fruit, notwithstanding the fact that the apple trees were planted on one of the highest and hardest knolls on the place, a field on which it was diffi- cult to harvest grain crops’ and the one that could be best spared for an orchard. I found the farm buildings declining owing largely to the lack of paint. If farm buildings are painted with one coat of good paint every two or three years they will last for a hundred or more years, seeming never to go into decay. But if this painting is neglected the frame build- ing on the farm will not last very long. There are hundreds of thousands of farm houses which are suffering at this moment for the lack of paint. Nothing on the farm is more easily overlooked or post- poned than painting. I regard it better to paint these buildings with one coat of paint every two or three years than two coats of paint at one time every five or six years,—C, A. Green.

A dozen thrifty

——O "= If you would make you home attractive have an orchard or fruit garden.

Stories for

Several Varieties from One Tree. Written for Green’s Fruit Grower by John H. Beaty, Calif.

Did you ever see pears growing on an apple tree or English walnuts growing on a black walnut tree? Each of these is possible but the most common sight is to see several varieties of apples on a single tree.

I remember, when a boy, my uncle sur- prised me one day by taking me into the orchard and showing me a tree on which were five varieties of apples and two varieties of pears. I was skeptical at first and thought the fruit had been tied to the limbs, but upon examining it care- fully I learned that it was indeed growing in the natural way. Then I thought

rhaps there was more than one tree

ut I found that all of the varieties were growing upon the one main trunk. It is

ossible to grow more than one variety of Fruit on asingle tree because we know how to graft, that is, we can take a living part of one tree and attach it in a certain way to the living part of another tree and these two parts will unite and both continue to


This art of grafting has even been carried to the human race and it is now quite a common occurrence for doctors to graft the skin of one person onto an- other. This grafting in human beings was tried a great many years ago. I remember seeing in an old book a picture of an attempt to graft the leg of a negro onto a white man. Of course such a thing is practically impossible but we can do that very thing with trees and plants. ;

If you will take a small twig from a tree and cut it off squarely, you will find upon examining it that there are three distinct parts: the heart or sap wood; the bark and between these, another distinct layer which is called ‘‘cambium.’”’ This can- bium layer is the living part of the plant. There are two general classes of plants, one of which grows in its cambium layer only, and the other of which grows in all

ortions at once. All fruit trees, however, long to the first class and so we will not consider the other one at all.

In the spring the roots take up moisture from the soil and this is transported through the sap wood to the leaves of the tree. This food is digested and is then sent back through the cambium layer to all parts of the tree, even to the roots themselves. This digested food is the only food the tree can use, so if this canal, the cambium layer, is destroyed, the tree must die. The Indians knew this fact and when they wished to kill a tree they would cut a circle entirely around it. This would cut off the supply of food from the roots and consequently the roots would die, which of course meant the death of the whole tree.

If you should take a piece of rubber hose and pour water through it, you would expe t that water to run on through a second piece of hose if you attached the two together. This of course is what would happen. You can easily under- stand then, that when the cambium layer of one plant is connected with the cam- bium layer of another plant, the food which is running through this cambium layer will go on into the part that is added. This is exactly what happens and it is reasonable to expect the part that is attached to continue its growth as when it was on its own stalk. But the food that is collected by the roots of one kind of tree and digested in the leaves of that tree is not in condition to be used in every kind of tree. This is for the same reason that you and I do not live on the same food that is eaten by fish. But we do live upon the same kind of food that is eaten by colored people. So it is that among the trees there are those that resemble each other in such a way that they can thrive upon the same food. An apple tree can live upon the food furnished by the roots of a pear tree or a pear can live upon the food furnished by the roots of an apple tree. In the same way, an apricot tree can be grafted on a plum tree or a plum tree onto an apricot tree. The apricot, however, can- not be successfully grafted onto an apple tree because the food is so different. Now J think you understand thoroughly why it is that grafts can be made and why it is that these grafts must be made on certain kinds of trees in order to be successful.

The question then is, ‘how shall this connection of the cambium layer of two plants be made?’ This is the operation of grafting. Several different methods are used, but the one essential in every method is the connection of the two cambium layers. You will very quickly see that in order to connect the cambium layers, you should have first of all a twig

SN e REAR ran A