Nos. i. to vii. 1850.

" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, in different parts of Asia will commit their observations to writing-, and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish if such communications shall be long inter- mitted; and it will die away if thev^t«^he«*«ejy cease."— Sir Wm, Jones.




Aborigines of the North East Frontier. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., ...... 309

South. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 461

Analysis of the Bengali Poem Raj Mala, or Chronicles of Tripura. By the

Rev. James Long, 533

Answers to Mr. Piddington's Queries about Winds, Storms, &c. in Tibet.

By Dr. A. Campbell, 457

Ball Coal of the Burdwan Mines, A Third Notice on the. By H. Pid ding- ton, Esq., 75

Bird-devouring habits of a species of Spider, Note on the. By Captain

Sherwill, 474

Brahminical Conquerors of India, some conjectures on the progress of the.

By H. Torrens, Esq., 1

Calderite, an undescribed Silicio-Iron and Manganese Rock, On. By H.

Piddington, Esq., 145

Dust Storms of India, On the. By P. Baddeley, Esq 390

Encrustation of Steam Boilers and Pipes in India, On the. By Dr. G.

Buist 419

General Vibration, or Descent and Upheaval, which seems, at a recent Geo- logical period, to have occurred all over the Northern Hemisphere, On

the. By George Buist, LL.D., 302

Ghassanite Kings, On the. By Dr. A. Sprenger, 469

Haughtonite, Examination of the New Mineral. By Henry Piddington, Esq., 452 Inscription Engraved on a brick found in a village in the Juanpur district,

Note on an. By Captain M. Kittoe, 454

from Oujein, Note on an. By Rajendralal Mitter, 475

Iron from the Dhunakar Hills, Birbhoom, Note on a specimen of. By H.

Torrens, Esq., „. 77

Jhilum, Descriptive notice of the district of. By L. Bowring, Esq., 43

Law of Storms in the Indian and China Seas, A Nineteenth Memoir on the.

By H. Piddington, Esq., , 349

iv Contents,

Page Lead Mines of Kohel et Terafeh, Note on the formations and. By Hekey-

kian Bey, 217

Meteorological Register for January, 1850, 89

. for February, ditto, 189

for March, ditto, 169

for April, ditto, 349

for May, ditto 429

for June, ditto, 499

. for July, ditto, * 573

for August, ditto, 575

for September, ditto, 577

. . for October, ditto 579

for November, ditto, 581

for December, ditto, . . 583

Mole, Description of a new species of. By E. Blyth, Esq., 212

Niti Pass. Notice of a Trip to the. By Lieut. R. Strachey, 79

Orange Yellow Earth from Sikkim, Examination and analysis of an. By H.

Piddington, Esq., 143

Ornithology of India, Conspectus of the. By E. Blyth, Esq., .... 229-319-501

Patna Boulders, Note on. By Captain E. L. Ommaney, « 136

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for December, 1849, 83

for January, 1850, -. 149

for February, ditto, 187

for March, ditto, 264

for April, ditto, , 34*}

for May, ditto, . 346

for June, ditto, , 421

for July, ditto, 481

for August, ditto, 493

for September, ditto, 497

for October, ditto, 5&Q$^

for November, ditto, ,.» 563

for December, ditto, 568

Shou or Tibetan Stag, On the. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 466

, Additional Notice of the. By ditto, 518

Statistics of Banda, Report on the. By M. P. Edgeworth, Esq., 89

Storms of Winds experienced in Tartary, Memorandum relative to the, with

suggestions relative to them, &c. By H. Piddington, Esq., 242

Strachey's (Lieut.) Scientific Enquiries in Kumaon, Notice of, 239

Tabary, Notice of a copy of the 4th volume of the Original Text of. By Dr.

Sprenger, , , , ., , 108

Contents. v

Page Tables of Mortality according to the experience of the Bengal Civil Service,

with the values of Annuities, &c. By Captain J. C. Hannyngton, 250

Tables for determining Heights by the Barometer. By Captain Hannyngton, 394

Takin of the Eastern Himalaya, On the. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 65

Valley of Spiti ; Report on the. By Captain W, C. Hay, 429

Variations of nearly affined species or races of Birds, chiefly inhabitants of

India, Remarks on the modes of. By E. Blyth, Esq., 229

Vichitra Natak or '.' Beautiful Epitome," a fragment of the Sikh Granth,

entitled "The book of the Tenth Pontiff." Translation of the. By Capt.

G. Siddons, 1st Cavalry, 521

Voysey's (Dr.) private Journal, Extracts from. No. IT. p. 110, No. III. 269 Wadi Araba, Note on the Strata cut through in excavating for Coal in. By

Hekeykian Bey, 139

Zinc Mines of Jawar, Note on the. By Captain J. C. Brooke, 212


Baddeley, Dr. P. On the Dust Storms of India, 390

Blyth, E. Esq. Description of a new species of Mole 215

Remarks on the Modes of variation of nearly affined species

or races of Birds, 221

Conspectus of the Ornithology of India, Burmah, &c, 229-319-501

Bowring, L. Esq. Descriptive Notice of the District of Jhilum, 43

Brooke, Captain W. C. Note on the Zinc Mines of Jawar, 212

Buist, Dr. George. On the General Vibration or Descent and Upheaval,

which seems, at a recent Geological period, to have occurred all over the

Northern Hemisphere, , 302

On the Encrustation of Steam Boilers and Pipes in India, 419

Campbell, Dr. A. Answers to Mr. Piddington's Queries about Winds,

Storms, &c, 457

Edgeworth, M. P. Esq. Report on the Statistics of Banda, 89

Hannyngton, Major J. C. Tables of Mortality according to the experience

of the Bengal Civil Service, 250

1 Tables for determining Heights by the Barometer, 394

Hay, Captain W. C. Report on the valley of Spiti, 429

vi Contents.

Page Hekeykian Bey. Note on the Strata cut through in excavating for Coal in

Wadi Araba, 139

Note on the Formations and Lead Mines of Kohel et Terafeh, 217

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. On the Takin of the Eastern Himalaya, 65

Aborigines of the North East Frontier,. 309

Aborigines of the South, 461

On the Shou or Tibetan Stag, 466-578

Kittoe, Captain M. Note on an Inscription from Juanpur, 454

Long, Rev. James. Analysis of the Raj Mala, 533

Ommaney, Captain E. L. Note on Patna Boulders, 136

Piddington, H. Esq. A Third Notice of the Ball Coal of the Burdwan

Mines, 75

Examination of an Orange Yellow Earth from Sikkim, 143

On Calderite, an undescribed Silicio-Iron and Manga- nese Rock, 145

•■ Memorandum relative to the Storms of Wind experienced

in Tartary, 242

A Nineteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms, 349

Examination of a New Mineral, Haughtonite, 452

Rajendralal Mittra, Note on an Inscription from Oujein, 475

Sherwill, Captain W. Note on the Bird-devouring habits of a species of

Spider, 474

Siddons, Capt. G. Translation of the Vichitra Natak, 521

Sprenger, Dr. A. Notice of a copy of the Original Text of Tabary, 108

On the Ghassanite Kings 469

Strachey, Lieut. R. Notice of a Trip to the Niti Pass, 79

Notice of Scientific Enquiries in Kumaon, 239

Torrens, H. Esq. Some Conjectures on the progress of the Brahminical con- querors of India, 1

Note on a specimen of Iron from the Dhunakar Hills, .. 77

Voysey, Dr. Extracts from his private Journal, 190-269


Plate I. Takin, of the Eastern Himalaya, Page 65

II. Front view of the skull of ditto, 67

III. Side view of the skull of ditto, 69

IV. Sculls of the Talpa leucura, T. microura, and T. europsea, 217

V. Chart to the Nineteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms, ........ 249

VI. Rough Sketch of the Spiti Valley, 448

VII. Horns of the Shou, 46ft

VIII. Ditto ditto 518




JANUARY, 1850.

Some conjectures on the progress of the Brdhminical Conquerors of India. By Henry Torrens, B. A., V. P. and late Secy. As. Soc. of Bengal.

In the grave pages of a scientific journal, so often honoured by the successes of positive antiquarian discovery, it may seem at first sight, somewhat idle to obtrude conjectural speculation, or something nigh akin to it. Where, however, he who dares to conjecture, does not go the length of insistance upon the verity of his suggestions ; but is willing to incur the discredit of failure in his position, for the chance of having been able to open a new road to enquiry, the boldness of the attempt may perhaps justify its publication, however faint the hope of any ultimate solid advantage.

But in truth it will be I think, found, that the progress of discovery up to this time in that anomalous field of Indian antiquity in which neither legible monument, nor written record lend their assistance to the student, has hitherto depended a good deal upon happy suppo- sition, directing the course of subsequent enquiry, leading to a definite consequence : as in the Indo-arian researches, we see the suggestion and first discovery with Prinsep, the investigation with Lassen, the result deduced by Wilson. I think, and have for some years thought, that we stand on the margin of a still broader field of historic know- ledge, such as shall carry us from studying the mere despotic successions of princes, to an accurate acquaintance with the progress of peoples, and an approximation in due course to the solution of that great mystery, the dispersion and subdivision of the races of mankind. The

No. XXXVIL— New Series. b

2 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

differences and yet the co-existant affinities of those races constitute one of the strangest, and most interesting subjects of human study. Identity exists among them, in the radical formation of language, with a total variance of custom ; while in another case, custom and appa- rent habits are identical, with a difference of the very system of speech, irreconcileable as yet by any current theories in philology. The most striking of these instances, is perhaps, that of the ancient Egyptians, and the modern Hindoos, whose affinity of customs is indisputable, even to the institution of castes, and segregation ; whose distinctive dress is precisely similar ; whose symbolic representations of deities in many instances correspond wonderfully ; and who indeed to any one that looks observingly on the memorials of the extinct nation, while resid- ing among the extant one, present in their modes and habits of life, of labour, the shape of tools, boats, and utensils, and a hundred minutiae of fact speaking to the eye, but tedious and trifling to detail, the appear- ance of one people. But if between two races that reckon the periods of their substantive existence, not by centuries but by milliads, there still abide in the one that lives, after the contingent influences of so many revo- lutions, so striking a resemblance to that one which nationally exists no more how much greater must not that similarity have been in times when both flourished, powerful and independent, at a period long anterior to the records of written history, in contemporaneous greatness ? Now if on the one hand, the Egyptian hath left us (save in the papyri the examination of which is in its infancy) no historical record of himself beyond what lie in temples and in tombs, with their remains of art, their pictures, and their half-read hieroglyphics, so on the other does the Hindoo, with an extant literature, vouchsafe us little or nothing of the definitely historical, amid much acute philosophy, much gorgeous poetry, mystical and imaginative theology, and legislation of a singular wisdom, fitted only for a highly civilized people. But, on either hand, meagre though to the historical interest of the lists of Egyptian kings, and all apocryphal the romance of Hindoo heroic poetry, we have fortunately preserved with each the representation of a people, whom chronology helps us in setting juxta-posed in the zenith of their power at corresponding periods. If then after a lapse, say, of two thousand years, the one race still be similar to that other which exists no more, while its records of things done anterior to that time, prove usages and

1850.] Br&hminical Conquerors of India. 3

habits, almost identical with those that constituted the painted records of the extinct people, we may with justice speculate upon an earlier time that saw the common origin of both.

It was in making some cursory enquiry into the early military history of nations, that I gradually accustomed my mind to admit the possible truth of a speculation, which I had inclined towards some years previ- ously, regarding the eastern tributaries (recognizable as such by the animals and offerings they bring) represented in the Egyptian kings' tombs of the eighteenth dynasty.* The early mythic fable of the Indian expedition of the Egyptian Bacchus ; the history of Ramaf with its Bacchic character which so struck Bishop Heber, when first he saw it represented in action, J the visible affinities of custom, the similarity of religious types, the painted caves rivalling the graphic picture-records of Egypt, all stimulate a dweller in India, at all inter- ested in searching for the material of history, to approximate to some idea of the point of annexation, at which the Egyptian and the Indian element in it give evidence of union. But it has been exceedingly difficult to devise up to this time the direction, in which that possibility of union is to be looked for. The opinion that " there is no other people of the ancient world whose form and fashion bear so strongly the impress of locality as the Egyptian ; or who is bound to his country by so many ties, or who so identified it with himself," § was all which had distributed itself very largely : its learned and sagacious pro- pounder maintained as late as the year 1826 1| that the dominant Egyptian castes, were descended from an aboriginal African people, with a curious disregard of the internal evidence of their institution as pointing to a different origin : and the idea of a maritime intercourse with India, founded on the known facts as to the external commerce

* Wilkinson's Manners and Customs, Vol. I. in loc.

f An old Egyptian word. " Pyramid is according to him (Tgnazio di Rossi) Pa- ram, ' the high.' The root ram for high, similar with the Semitic, is assured; rama for high seems also to have warrant. The pronounciation of the article is as with the pi-romis of Herodotus for pe-rdmi, the man." Bunsen's ./Egypt's Place. Book II. Sec. VI. (a note is appended to this in the original with a cloud of philo- logical authorities). H. T.

% Heber's Journal in loc.

§ Heeren's Researches, Vol. V. ch. 1.

|| Bunsen's Egypt's Place. B. I. Sect. III. B. VII.

B 2

4 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

of Egypt, and her ancient ports, as Philoteras (Wilkinson's M. and C. ch. III.) might, in this sense account for the Hindu analogies ; nay, the passage* in George Syncellus upon the 40th king in his list, Amenophthis ("who is the Vocal Stone. The Ethiopians came from the Indus, and settled in Egypt ;") would go with many who adopted Heeren's view as proof positive, in the absence of a thoroughly critical examination of the records, historical, traditional, and chronological, of the ancient kingdoms of Egypt.

It so happened that in 1846, a position was put forth in a treatise on military history, published anonymously and obscurely enough by me in Calcutta, maintaining the Egyptians, to have been the original instructors and civilizers of Europe. This idea combated the view taken of them as respects the peculiar "impress of their locality," and was entertained after mature reflection upon consideration that their monuments show them to have been great and mighty conquerors, that they also bore testimony to their progress in art and science, and that art goes forth with arms, the study of which is one of the first historical characteristics with an energetic and enterprising people. After quoting Saxe'sf well-known comment on discipline, it was observed " the nations of antiquity who derived their military system directly from Egypt, imbibed this great principle together with the rules of practice which their leaders, or their founders carried away from the land, which was truly the focus of all western civilization. These

* " I have represented the Egyptians as an aboriginal people of Africa, and as descended from the same race as the present inhabitants of Nubia. This race insensibly spread itself by colonies along the valley of the Nile into Lower Egypt. I have confined this assertion, however, to the superior castes of priests and. warriors ; since it appears, according to the relations of the Egyptians themselves, that it was a sacerdotal caste, emigrated from Meroe, which, by the aid of its reli- gion and superior intelligence, founded a dominion over the Nomad tribes, the pri- mitive inhabitants of Egypt. Such is also the opinion of Rosellini, although he does not mention Meroe, but only cites the generic name of Ethiopia. I shall show, a little further on, that Champollion also held the same opinion, which is still further strengthened by the statements of other travellers quoted in my work." Heeren's Res. Vol. V. Appendix XI. Sec. I.

f The statements of this Byzantine chronologer, with those of his predecessors Theophilus, Panodorus, and Anianus, are critically examined by Bunsen in his •• Egypt's Place." B. I. Sec. II. D. E. P. G.—H. T.

1850.] Brdhminical Conquerors of India. 5

nations were the Phoenicians ; and through them the Carthaginians ; the Hebrews ; the Greeks generally ; the Etruscans and through them the Romans. As to other nations more ancient than these, who may indirectly have either participated with the Egyptians in their know- ledge of the science of war, or have gained experience of it by subse- quent collision with them, we shall have hereafter a few brief words to say, more however in the way of speculation than enquiry."

To this position was added, another elicited in the course of an investigation, into the history of the use of the horse, an animal of eastern origin as now acknowledged by all naturalists ; the antiquity of the use of this creature in Arabia was established,* chronologically, by the dates (2337 and 2136 B. C.) given on astronomical calculation to the book of Job ; and historically, at a period perhaps anterior to any extant conventional base for calculation, by reference to the Hyma- rite rock inscriptions, found in the old seats of the tribe of Aws in Hadramaut by Lieut. Welsted (A. D. 1843), and translated by the Rev C. Forster.f Now as Wilkinson, " the trustworthy and accurate," as Chevalier Bunsen calls him, gave for the era of the first Egyptian king, no more than 2320 B. C, the question of comparative civilization at the period in Egypt and Arabia struck me as worth attention. On the one hand was an astronomical date assignable to the era of a people (of Uz), who had already a literature, and a knowledge, however patriarchal, of the arts ; and beside it, an historical record of un- known antiquity, descriptive of the private life and military habits of a race, greatly advanced in the luxuries of the one, and the experi- ence of the other. On the contrary it was set, on the authority of Josephus,J a date for the existence of the oldest known founder of Egyptian civilization, posterior to that of Job. Without skill, or opportunity in this country, to examine further, I could only judge inferentially from the facts before me, and, in showing the futility of Col. Hamilton Smith's position that the Hyksos, or shepherd kings, brought the horse to the Egyptians, who bestowed the knowledge of him on the Arabians, I observed as follows :

* Reveries, B. VII.

t Forster's Geography of Arabia, Vol. II.

The argument is appended, or written, without amendment of the dates.— H. T. % Wilkinson, M. L. C. Vol. I. ch. II.

6 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

" If such communications existed between the two nations, how comes it that the camel, the national type-animal of Arabia, should never have found his way, into the painted records of the Egyptians, that careful and observant people ? It is a most singular fact, that the camel never has yet been found pourtrayed upon any of the paint- ings or sculptures, extant in the Nile valley.* The native habitat of the horse was in high latitudes, thousands of miles distant from the spot in which he most appears to have been cultured : the indigenous site of the camel was in the sandy wastes of the children of Ishmael, immediately adjoining the land of Egypt. Yet are its inhabitants sup- posed to have transmitted the equine animal to the masters of the camel, and with all their curiosity, science and observation to have asked for, or admitted of, no return in kind ? We can only conclude that the horse was brought by the original colonists of the Nile valley, a race so singularly coincident in customs and practices with the Hindus, from Central Asia, at a period beyond our power to calculate upon any date now in our possession ; that another tribe or race must, about the same time, have carried the same animal into Arabia, where the nature of the country suggested, as in the case of Egypt, the manner of his use, and the purposes to which he should be applied. The one people, amid wide and open plains, and scanty pastures, rode, as became a nomad race ; the other, in a low, narrow, deep, and plenteous land, pampered their steeds in stables, and yoked them to a car, a vehicle so light that two powerful horses could easily drag them- selves and it, through the fat loan of the muddy country in which a mounted man would sink to his horse's locks at every stride."

It was not till about two years or more after the above was written that I received, in the German, the three first books of Chevalier Bunsen's Egypt's Place in the World's History ; and it may be judged with what satisfaction I read the peroration of his first book, in which he italicises the one great result of his unparalleled research, coincident with my own humble inference.

"Ona comparative view, we can have no hesitation in saying, that the investigation into mythology, as far as it has gone, determines upon a fact not less important as respects the world's history, as certainly

* Gibbon (Misc. Works) quotes Diodorus Siculus 6. III. c. 44 to prove that the camel was extant in his day as a wild animal in Arabia. H. T.

1850.] Brdhminical Conquerors of India. 7

and to the same intent, as did the dissection of (Coptic) philology. The knowledge of God like the knowledge of language among the Egyptians has its roots in ancient Asia, in the ancient Armeno-Cauca- sian territory. That this land, defined more nearly, is one of primi- tive Aram, and connected with the primitive kingdom in Babel, and that the hieroglyphics of Egypt are actually nought else in the image of the world's history, than a still extant peculiarity of the old-time of Aramite-Armenian mankind (according with the same law whereby Iceland exhibits the still extant heathen Norway of the 8th century) is an historical fact which we will here but assert, proposing to lay the proof of it before our readers in the fourth and fifth book.

" If we turn from this point to its opposite, the historical period of Egypt, our investigation into the Egyptic origines, will already have made it clear, that the kingdom of Menes itself, rests upon a venerable substructure of several centuries of the Nile valley, rich with the spirit of intellect. Conformably with it must Menes have constituted the kingdom of Egypt, in that he brought together, and united the separate elements of life of Egypt's provinces. Thus do these origins establish true, the assertion made at the opening of this book, that Menes created the historical knowledge of the Egyptians, as did Karlmagne that of the German peoples."*

Here then we have research supporting inference with such command- ing weight of authority, as to encourage the resumption of ideas still more daring, than those even which suggested an eastern origin to the inhabitants of ancient Egypt, from a stock allied to the Hindu. I have not the fourth and fifth books of Chev. Bunsen's work, indeed I know not if they be published, in spite of enquiry made ; but, I do not think it inexpedient to set forth once again, and, on authority corroborative of the Egyptian tomb-records, that the ancient Egyptians, an eastern people who brought into the Nile-valley the germ of civilization,

* I have seen, and indeed possess, a translation of the first Vol. of Chev. Bunsen's Egypt by Charles Cottrell, Esq. M. A. (London 1848); but it is in a style of periphrasis, and not without omissions : I have therefore ventured on the humble verity of as literal a rendering as I could master. Should Mr. Cottrell have translated from a later edition than that of my copy (Hamburgh, 1845, octavo), which has suffered alteration, (and from the variations I should suppose so) part of my remarks do not apply. H. T.

8 Some tonjectures on the progress of [Jan.

there perfected it, and then carried back their arms and arts as con- querors, both before and after their temporary subjection by the Hyksos, into the countries immediately civilized and peopled, through which they had, as nomads, passed on their way to the Nile.

It is remarkable that up to the time of the Ptolemies, the character of every monument, and of every vestige of the ancient Egyptian people retains its Egyptian type, that * impress of locality' which so much struck Heeren ; and as this type has from the earliest, been unmixed by analogy with that of any other nation, save the Hindu, the neces- sary conclusion is that the Egyptians in their migration towards the Nile traversed virgin lands, as yet unsettled and uninhabited. Accord- ing to the great law which seems to regulate the progress of people from land to land, that progression is impulsive, the foremost tribe being forced forward by that which directly infringes upon it. This may happen in three ways ; by the strong hand, driving a race of previous settlers from their homes to the masterful advantage of the aggressor, who has perhaps himself been forced upon them ; or by the two supposed cases of incompatibility of co-existence in races whose capacities for accepting civilization materially differ ; viz. either when the foremost race being of peaceful habits, industrious and quiescent, becomes dissatified with the neighbourhood of a people, which, though not unfriendly, is inapt to mix or to deal with its denizens on equal terms ; or where the converse occurs, the foremost nation being slothful, inert, uninventive, and capable of only a semi- savage independence, refusing and ultimately withdrawing from the offence of the civilization superincumbent over it, in the institutions of the nation that has immediately followed it up.* It is probable then that the shepherds, i. e. the Nomad races, had been " an abomi- nation unto the Egyptians'* from times anterior to their settlement in the Nile-valley, at a period how remote the newly-established chrono-

* The disappearance of the pure Celtic races, in our isles before Saxon influences is a melancholy extant example of this latter phenomenon in the history of man- kind : in process of centuries, the pure Celt recedes, while the Saxon or Teuton advances, and the mixed race formed intermediately remains stationary. The recession and gradual extinction of aboriginal American, Australian, and some South-African races before a mixed Saxo-Teutonic, and as respects the Spaniard, a mixed Goto-Semitic race, offer analogous examples with variation of circum- stances according to relative grades of civilization. H. T.

1850.] Brahminical Conquerors of India. 9

logy of Chev. Bunsen shall, before I go much further, testify : but in the mean time I must go back to the vestiges which remain to us of one of those great races after their settlement as a civilized people, in order to trace the character of Egyptian influence over them.

I may here premise, that when writing on this subject in 1846, I alluded to the researches of Signor Botta (commenced in 1843) at Khorsabad, pointing out their immense importance, and stating that " we may look to receive from this quarter information of the most interesting and instructive character, as soon as the exploration of these ruins shall have been undertaken on an extensive scale. It may readily be conceived, that at such a time as this, vague speculation upon the character of the former tenants of these ancient realms, " would not only be valueless but even impertinent ;" and Layard's Nineveh that now (1849) is before me, speaks confirmation, welcome and eloquent, of the justice of the opinion. This able man and delightful writer, who has driven by sheer sense, skill, and enterprise a new adit into the dark hill of history, has furnished us in one of his discoveries, with evidence of the adoption of Egyptian habits, and of the existence of an Egyptianised race in works of art (ivory carved figures with hieroglyphics and symbols of Egyptian sovereignty found at Nimroud) having in form and style of art a purely Egyptian character, though certain pecu- liarities would seem to mark the work of a foreign, perhaps an Assyrian artist j* the like were found at Kyomjik, another of the mighty mounds

* It is most interesting to compare in Mr. Dennis' Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria(2 Vols. 8vo. London, 1848), an archseological discovery of precisely simi- lar character, simultaneously published with the Ninevehan one, as regards Egyptian imitative art, occurring in a very ancient Etruscan sepulchre at Vulci. This tomb, called by the discoverers Grotto d' Iside (Cit. and Cem. Vol. 1st. p. 419) is the burial place of two ladies of rank, " whose effigies are still in existence, though nearly three thousand years may have elapsed since their decease." Of the articles, vases, unguent-pots, and alabastra, in the tomb, "all have a strong Egyptian or oriental character ; but with the exception of those evidently imported from the banks of the Nile, they are Etruscan imitations of Egyptian art, with the native stamp more or less strongly marked." Of a particular vase, Mr. Dennis further observes " So Egyptian-like are the chariots, and the procession of females, painted on this vase that the general observer would take it for an importation : yet the learned have pronounced it Egyptian only in character, and native in execution, though of most archaic style, and early date." A necropolis of the


10 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

of ruins. But at Nimroud, a still stranger revelation was at hand. At a certain level in the mound, many tombs were found (Nineveh, vol. II. ch. XI.) containing the remains of the dead with vases, plates, mirrors, spoons, beads, and ornaments, "identical with similar remains found in the tombs of Egypt.'* Some of these tombs were built of baked bricks carefully joined, but without mortar ; others were formed by large earthen sarcophagi covered with an entire alabaster slab. " Having carefully collected the contents of the tombs," says Mr. Layard, " I removed them, and dug deeper into the mound. I was surprised to find, about five feet beneath them, the remains of a building. Walls of unbaked bricks could still be traced ; but the slabs with which they had been cased, were no longer in their places, being scattered about without order, and lying mostly with their faces on the flooring of baked bricks. Upon them were both sculptures and inscriptions." Here were the tombs over the ruins. The edifice had perished and in the earth and rubbish accumulating above its remains, a people, whose funeral vases, and ornaments were identical in form and material, with those found in the catacombs of Egypt, had buried their dead. " What race then occupied the country after the destruction of the Assyrian palaces? at what period were these tombs made?" asks Mr. Layard. He goes on to show us such differences in the character of the Assyrian bas-reliefs in the lower grave-buried palace, and that occupying the N. W. of the Nimroud mound, that one might think we read here a his- tory of Assyrian power subverted, and of a strange (Egyptianised) race living and dying in and over their kingly halls, who were again subsequently so dispossessed, and eradicated by the re-establishment of Assyrian domination, as only to tell they had been ever there, by the mute and mournful eloquence of their graves ! The course of ascer- tained Egyptian history, supports the silent evidence of these newly- discovered remains ; their extreme antiquity and obscurity as respects all other historical authority, prepares for the reception of the esta- blished chronological computations of Chevalier Bunsen, which carry back the record of the succession of time, as synchronised with the

west, giving like intimation of a local Egyptian influence, with that shown in the palatial graves of Nimrod on the plain of the Tigris, adds great force to the truth of my exposition of the external impression, left lasting by the old Egyptians beyond their own land. H. T.

1850.] Brdkminical Conquerors of India. 11

circumstance of history, from a particular era, to an epoch infinitely more ancient, than any which previous research had as yet accorded to enquirers. For instance, to put the case on Bunsen's chronology ; if the grave-buried palace above noted, had been destroyed or removed by Sesortosis II. (the great Sesostris of the 12th Egyptian dynasty, v. Bunsen in loc), he, whom tradition asserts, I may add, the Assyrians to have deified,* a king whose exact entity research has identified, and whose exploits, history (v. Diodorus, &c. &c.) has ever celebrated, though confusedly with two others of the name who preceded and followed him if if he, I say, may be supposed to be the conqueror who settled an Egyptianised race in the seats of the Old Assyrians, this was about 2801 years before Christ, (v. Bunsen) : about two hundred and fifty years after (B. C. 2560) commenced the era of a foreign domination in Egypt, that of the Hyksos, who seem to have been a

* Kai "Secrcaarpis eKeivoS rep KOff/xoKpaTeop XiytaBcu 6ebs to?? affarvptois*

Fourth Chiliad of the histories of Johannes Pzetzes (556-7) : I do not remem- ber seeing this belief, mentioned out of the rich mine of tradition, which the above Byzantine has left us ; nor have seen this passage before quoted from him. H. T.

f I append at length another ancient allusion to the historical mystery of Sesos- tris, now cleared up in our own day from a fragment of Paulinus' metrical version of the lost book De Reyibus by Suetonius (Oudendorp's Ed. Bak. 1751, 2 vol. 8vo.), preserved by Ausonius Epist. XIX.

Europamque Asiamque duo vel maxima terrse Membra, quibus Libyam dubie Sallustius addit, Europas adjunctam ; possit quum tertia dici. Regnatus multis, quos fama obliterata ; et quos Barbara Romanae non tradunt nomina linguae. Illibanum, Numidamque Avelim, Parthumque Vonouem, Et Caranum, Pellsea dedit qui nomina regum, Quique magos docuit mysteria vana Nechepsi, Et qui regnavit sine nomine mox Sesostris.

It is curious to trace in this notice of the nameless Sesostris, (which word was doubtless taken, like Pharaoh, for a title) the confusion arising from the recurrence of a Sesortosi3 in several dynasties of Egyptian kings, and the result as expressed in obscure and remote tradition, at one time raising him to be a god, at another a mysterious monarch without a name ! Incidents in study, like these, deserve record for the encouragement they hold out to research, which will in due time teach us.— H. T.

c 2

12 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

mixed race of Canaanites, and Bedouins (v. Bunsen) ; but, be they who they may, the description of the dominancy of Egypt by theory, will account for these graves in the Nimroud mound, first asserting the fact of her colonization there ; and of the re-appearance of new Assy- rian palaces, above these graves which surmounted the old ones, when the dispossessed race returned in victory to their ancient site of power.*

I have spoken as merely of conjectures in this paper ; but as leading myself on to my own peculiar position, have, on the evidence of fact, moved the ancient Egyptian out of the " impress of his locality" into an ascertained residence towards the East, on the testimony of an archaio- logist, and with the concurrence of an historiographer, who certainly wrote and thought as independently of each other, as distance and unconsciousness could make them do ; meanwhile Mr. Layard affords strange matter for further conjecture in the inscription given below, "on a slab at Nimroud," he says, "forming a part of a wall in the south-west palace, but brought from the most ancient edifice, I found one line of writing in which the characters were thus formed. It occurred beneath the usual inscription, and was but slightly cut."

* Historic theories of the character above expressed, would a few years ago have been justly repudiated; but the progress of discovery begins to enable us to venture at an explanation of many mysteries ; and no sooner does one astounding fact in the voiceless records of the past reach us from the East than in the West appears another, as strange and unexpected to corroborate the inference which the first directly points towards. I allude to the Egyptian character of the most ancient remains found in the tombs still extant, about the often nameless sites, of lost Etruscan cities, or rather, Etrurian, Umbrian, and Pelasgian ; Dennis' Cities and Cemetries of Etruria. (Lond. 1848.) I may indeed go further still, as Mr. Dennis finds (Vol. II. pp. 39, 202), Etrusco-Ninevean traces, binding the East and West, as it were together. I cite for readier reference the passages in his excellent and intensely interesting work, which note the presence of an Egyptian element, in the early civilization of Italy. Etrusco-Egyptian, Vol. II. pp. 8, 296, 107, 114, 124. Pelasgo-Egyptian, pp. 48, 59, 62, 65, 72. Umbro-Egyptian or Siculo-Egyptian, p. 320, and for a combina- tion of these archaic types, Vol. II. ch. 51, (Chinsi) and ch. 56, (Cortona) passim. On the latter site occur (p. 442), " many purely Egyptian idols," and a relic as indisputably pointing to an African origin, as the porcelain jars of the Egyptian tombs do to China, the head in bronze " of a negro." Here then, again, we have ancient Egypt, carried out of her supposed boundaries in the most practical of proofs. H. T.

1850.] Brahminical Conquerors of India. 13

E3"«t i: t T T 4 T * T"R< "h«


" It is evident," he observes, " that by substituting the wedge or arrowhead for the lines in the above inscription, the character would resemble such as are found on the earliest Assyrian monuments/' This is doubtless ; but left as they are, do they not exhibit a type of the earliest form of the Lat character of India?* Again, Mr. Layard gives us a single specimen of a cursive character found also at Nimroud, in fragments of pottery ; also on an alabaster vase with cuneiform writing, containing the name of the Khorsabad king. " It has been found," he says, " on Babylonian bricks of the time of Nebuchad- nezzar."


This character I had thought at once recognizable, as the cursive Ario-Bactrian, occurring on the slabs found in the Stuppa of Man- kyala in the Punjab, fac-similes of which are with the Society, and which Professor Wilson (Arian Antiquities) has decyphered, and ar- ranged alphabetically. But our able Secretary, Mr. Laidlay, has re- ferred me to another alphabet, dialectic of the Hebrew, as set forth in the interpretation of the bilingual inscription of Thongga (Journal Asiatique, Fevrier, 1 843) to which be conceives the characters of this brief specimen may be considered more properly to belong. Another copy of this inscription (Trans, of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I.) by Mr. Catherwood who terms it Punico-Lybian, confirms this view,

* It will require but a cursory reference to James Prinsep's table of the Lat characters (As. Soc. Journal, Vol. VII.) to establish the affinity of the above letters with the oldest Lat form in use about 500 years B. C. perhaps in a transition state from the cuneiform to the lineal character ?

14 Some conjectures on the progress of [Jan.

These inscriptions afford at any rate monumental evidence of the contact of an Egyptianised race, resident far beyond the confines of the mother-country with foreign nations, whose habitat lay, in one case certainly, eastward. We had already proof that the produce of the extremest Orient found its way to Egypt ; that of China, namely, in the shape of articles of porcelain, of such inferior quality as to argue that the manufacture was in its infancy when they were made, this constituting another proof of their high antiquity : it had been conjec- tured that these small vessels found in the tombs at Thebes contained some precious ingredient, and that they had reached Egypt in course of commerce through India.* "We have now to note what may have been the epoch of this early commerce by reference to a newly-estab- lished chronology ; what may have been the direction of this inter- course geographically, and finally, what were the people who, as Sir Gardner Wilkinson says, "at a very remote period" occupied India in connection with the ancient inhabitants of the Nile valley.

It is necessary, however, that I should, before speculating further upon this connection, which may have been collision in the first instance, set distinctly before my reader, from the ancient literature and poetry of the Hindus, their character, first, as aggressors, and as warriors quite as bold and skilful as the Egyptians themselves ; and then as occupants of a conquered country which they had incompletely mastered out of the hands of