AOI III III ON ቶቹ E EER ቹቹ ቹቹ ቹቹ ቹቹ X ዛቶ اد‎ EE LE اد‎ ቹቹ ቴሐቹቹቸቹ X XO X OK OX XX ቾቹ ቹቹ ተቹ ቸቸቹቸ## ZxXAppeal # ቹቹ ቸቸ bb ህቱ ዛቱ ቱቹቹ ቹቹ LELE OCOD OC OOOO ዩቹቸቅቴቹቹዞ ቾች ቹቹ OOOO OOOO ፍቶ ሐተ ቹቹ ፍቹ

: NEWSLETTER OF THE JULY/AUGUST 1986 s 1.56

3 ቹቹቾቹችቾችቹቹችቹችቹችቹ ቹቹ ቾቹቹችቹቹችቹችቹችቹችቹችቹቾቹችቹጆቹ።ኝ፡።፡ቾዱ#ቹ።ቹ፤ቹ፤፤ችቹቾጾቹ።፤ቹቹችቾቹችችቹችችቹ።#።ቹችቾጾቹቾ#ጾ።#ፍ#።ቆሎቆ።#።#ቾጆ፤ችቹቹቹች፤ቹችቹቾቹ ቹቾቹቾቹቹቹችዞ።ቹቻቻችቹ‹። VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP E EEE ECR ON EE ቁቾቸቹቹ ዞቹቸቹ oe ae ee EE ELEC EEE EEE EE DEE EER ELE E ECELE EEC EEE E E EEE EE EE

JO on اد بد بد اد با اد اد بد اد اد اد ماد اد اد بد بد آاد آاد‎ OR

x * KXFINSIDE "ER s wsxsus** NEXT MEETING ******** 1 +, EG NES ہیں‎ I 6 22 x KILLARNY COMMUNITY CENTRE Ihe. Meera. si casa waka KSK. ped x 6260 KILLARNY ST., VANC x Ken!s ጋገር Speaks ینوئے‎ send x > The Decline of Uncle Clive....4 > SEPT. 12, 7:00PM : BYL PODES ማማ ck dv les 4355 iwa 7 : 1 Product/Dealer NewSs< ہہ ہہ ہے‎ B x THIS WILL BE THE FIRST MEETING ٭‎ Extended. Basie Jun «4433 و ےک‎ «425 . AFTER OUR SUMMER BREAK. x 2068 TIPS CL. CA کو‎ ብሕ ወ. ክራ یع‎ ታች X oc coke o 0X0 oc oc oc oc oc oc o c6 oc oco aco okc ትችት ኦቹ EO ቾቾ ቹቾቹቾችቿቹችችች OG Exchange Groups. CZORT او و‎ GO) BUD ETSE ee Se لے‎ a ea 1 | TAG AEDES LOOTED ZXAPPEAL IS A MONTHLY Playing With Electricity.....15 NEWSLETTER PUT OUT BY THE 2581 Display File ape FA 6 VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP. ADA GSTEN: o. ua یا و‎ os Fe 2l FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE Graph PIOtLLborYa...» áo kd P CLUB AND ZXAPPEAL SEE THE BACKCOVER. “HONEA honi That" چو یو ہے‎ 12 1 ጋሜ

Hardware Project... 32i x25 Duüungeob:;ofi-Ymir.... e سے‎ ak News Message Board... ےک‎ 5-5 2 Adding a Full-Sized Printer..34 Tape Makes a Difference......35 Banners crana serea ጨፍ s dO BIALA JueRlerceeveetokwkk sei

Reviews The Pen 6S ¢ + as as SA be es avd

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Programs

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Here we are - half way thru the summer and it's time for our summer double edition. This one is chock full of goodies: "The Decline of Uncle Clive" looks at Clive Sinclair in an unflattering but very candid light - must reading for any Sinclairphile; The Zeeper "graces" us again with his Presence; Ken A. gives us a nice example of 1000 programming; Gerd B. presents an article based on the Non Volitile Memory single chip internal add-on that Wilf R. recently engineered; I've included a program that allows one to set up å message BBS; all this and lots more too!

Bits & gia adm eRe Bw aS EST YI NES

++ «SUM magazine has been bought out by TIME DESIGNS. Sad to lose a great supporter of the Sinclair concept but hopefully TIME DESIGNS will, as a result of the merger, grow for the benefit of all. Remember, only our continued support of this and other publications will ensure their existence.

..who says the QL is dead. We've heard of 2, maybe 3, QL clones coming on the market in Gt. Britain. Remember Alan, the cream always rises to the top! «++ take a good look at the advert for Byte Power. Sounds like a good deal. Remember, support our advertisers. Their paid ads subsidize your newsletter costs!

«++ take a look at the ad for Fred Nachbour's "Dungeon of Ymir". Fred colaborated on Gerd's article. This game is HI RES on a 1500!

„..1f anyone wants a good and CHEAP composite monitor hustle along to R&P Electronis at 4th & Arbutus. 14" B&W 'slightly' used -- $49.95 each or 3/$100.00. | These are Hi Res and come from a stock brokerage.

„..I had a chance to try out a couple of new additions to John B.'s list of wares. ARTWORX is 10 out of 101 A "must-have" for anyone with a 2068. We'll have a full review in an upcoming issue but let me say that this is the neatest, most friendly, & addictive graphics utility to come my way. I was up until 2:30 just having fun with it. TIMACHINE is a complete MC ۱ compiler for all the 2068 Basic commands. Now that favourite BASIC program can be compiled into superfast machine code. CLONE will make a back-up of ANY 2068 or Spectrum program.

„..be sure to give CITY-LINK a call and tune into the HOTLINE sub-board hosted by our very own John B. A list of BBS numbers is listed in this issue.

„..Peter Hacksel of Hacksel Electronics was in town recently and we got to gether so he could demo the Hacksel Centronics Printer Interface. This unit is comes in either rear edge or cartridge dock configuration. This is a very neat interface for the 2068 and if you are in the market for one BUY CANADIAN. That's all for this time TTUL

9 ہت و وو 9 9 00 ویو وڑاھ »6:167 وو‎ oe vv w scs V ROU

The Meeting:

ፒ፣ -፦ Came to order with only 15 bodies present. Everyone seemed to have something else come up that nite. Bob L. announced he was stepping down as the Prez. He's sold his whole systen and going over to the other side(Atari). That means that Ken A. moves up to Prez. Anywun wanna be V/Prez? Hold up yor hand! Wilf brought us up to date on how the hard ware group was coming with the bankswitch memory unit. They now have 5 prototypes up and running and hope to have the production model on the shelf by lst Sept.

512k plus EPROM burner on the back of a 1000! Gerd 8. spoke about the article he was Submitting to the newsletter ra: Sk NVM inside 1000. Ken A. showed his I.0. board and ZSpeak board combo in a case. Very slick. He uses it as a teaching aid at school for children learning "ingrish" as a second language. Harvey T. proadly demoed his "text to speech" board for the QL. VERY slick. Paul R. gave us some "propaganda" about his ST and the ST club. We ajourned for the summer and will meet on the 12th of September.

Ke ee e e KKK ode dede dece dece RK KK de ee EK KK KK

Here's an

elegant 2k program by Ken Abramson that

utilizes the speech board on the 1000.

__SBREM —vEPEER FYTPEEK BTAN V 220 POKE 18528,0 „PEEK sv PEEK E<=BACS BC IF + FO 230 RAND USA 15525 0.9 250 NEXT 8 = REM 2፡53 ZZPERK PROGRAM (SK) 250 POKE 16525,0 PIW AR R 278 RAND USR 15525 = Z=200 2308 SRUE A = CLS 5000 SAVE "WW" 6 PRINT TAB 5: "FUNCTION" “com 5685 PAUSE 2 MAND I Lo E 18; "MENU". "GOTO 8018 GOSUB Z 57,24, NEU HLLOPHONES"."GOTO 10". 5525 GOTO 5. = ሜኑ 1 == መጫ ሙጫ ሙጫ ii = = ہے‎ m a chi E EHTERING',"GOTO ud 3182 PRINT "TO CHANGE ALLOPHONE: saue EO EOS RP RE ær a "LET ፐሄ (NUMBER) =CHR$ VALUE” a SH 2s BULG See TP جال‎ n LOPH. "5 6070-9190 8110 FOR F=1 TO P-1 ieee eis 9120 PRINT “(";F;"3"; CODE T$(F); ze LET Pol : 3130 JEST F 38_PRIMT AT 1,1; "ENTER AN ALLO aaa PHONE (200 MA." 33 PRINT “SE ENTER ""2aa"" To SPES HT Z-SPEAK M.L. Locations: 35 PRINT AT 18.0;"LasT ALLOPHO å AR NE WAS NUMBER ";P-1;" 3 Li 14 a 4 23 + 36 IF P=1 THEM GOTO 4a 1i a ٦ 52 % 37 PRINT AT 14,1;"LAST ALLOPHO 21 Sg a ET a NE VALUE WAS ";CODE T$iP-1);" ^" 1 152 Ti 211 PEEK 18 INPUT_H ii 211 PEEK 1 sg BH E 45 IF P:Z-1 OR M;Z-1 THEN GOSU 1 55 R 1i 219 :z 5 2 4; 52 $ A mer ing 50 IF N:Z-1 THEN GOTO 5 PE qu 1 503 AC: 70 LET T$(P) =CHR$ N 211 PEEK ii 203 BCE 80 LET P=P+1 33 Ba = ia ^ 38 GOTO 30 281 TE + PANA 282 RAND USR 15516 Bi v o 1 ak, 205 FOR ü-1 TO P-1 a : S35 For 210 LET D=CODE T$(0) 211 PEEK " ys E

[ CA 1

The following article appeared in ,. the June 12/86 edition of the 'Newscientist' and is reprinted without permission. Let'em suel

i!

The decline of Uncle Clive

Knighted by Margaret Thatcher and widely considered as the most well-known scientist in Britain, the chairman of Sinclair Research seemed unstoppable. What went wrong?

Ian Adamson and Richard Kennedy

N 7 APRIL 1986, Clive Sinclair sold off his name and rights to all existing computer products to Amstrad. With this single, dramatic move, he has effectively withdrawn from the market in home computers that his prod- ucts played a major role in creating. When Sinclair signed the deal with Alan Sugar of Amstrad, Sinclair's products held the largest share (around 35 per cent) of this declining but stil! lucrative field. Sinclair's decision to opt out at this point illuminates several recurrent problems with his entre- preneurial style.

It also raises questions about the viability of Sir Clive's future operations. Alternative offers (favoured by Bill Jeffrey, the managing director of Sinclair Research) would have allowed the computer business to continue, and avoided many of the redundancies, which involved 95 per cent of the workforce. However, the price of the alternative deal was that Sir Clive would become a minority shareholder. The history of the decline of Sinclair's earlier company, Sinclair Radion- Ics, subsequent to 1977, when Sinclair became a minority partner and the National Enterprise Board took the helm, showed that loss of absolute control, with tne attendant obli- gation to take into account the views of others, soon becomes intolerable to a partner programmed to run a one-man show.

Sinclairs decade of fame and (mostly) favour, which resulted in both his knighthood and the less-inspiring sobri- quet of "Uncle Clive" among the enthusiastic young purchasers of his high-tech toys, is mainly the result of the popular success of the “ፖጂ” series of computers, from the ZX80 to the ZX Spectrum. While his predominant social contribution was to promote mass addiction to computer games, Sinclair has been widelv misrepresented— not least by those centres of learning that gave him honorary degrees for "services to computer literacy and education"—as the man

who brought computers into the home. This is not strictly true, if we understand by "computer" a functional tool with several related applications, whose design increases the ease or efficiency with which we can perform such tasks.

Sir Clive's marketing achievement was to downgrade the "concept" of a computer to the point where he could claim to provide one for less than the magical £100 mark. To this end, efficient keyboards and monitors, useful amounts of- memory, effective filing and storage systems and the like were stripped away, to leave an affordable facsimile of a "computer". The market image was more important than what the computer could do, but the burgeoning industry in computer games provided an application which adolescents—young and old—eagerly seized on as the raison d'être for their new gadget. In the main, it was ignorance of genuine computer technology that fired the success of the ZX range, despite the availability of accessories that, albeit ineffi- ciently, turned the Z80 processor chip at the heart of these up-market toys into the core of a useful machine.

The QL microcomputer marked Sinclair's attempt to move out of games and into the market of true home comput- ers and computers for small businesses. The launch was a multi-faceted disaster. The original concept—an affordable, portable and genuinely useful computer, with a flat-screen displav, adequate memory, built-in communications modem and “free” software to perform basic functions—was viable, as attested to by Amstrad's later success with its less ambi- tious purpose-built word processor, the PCW8256. However. Sinclairs penchant for idiosyncratic technologies led the company to waste time and effort on trying to produce a workable flat-screen display, using Sinclair's modified cathode-ray tube. Other delavs in the development of the QL resulted from the choice of a new but inefficient microdrive

-4-

(a system which uses a fast audio cassette based on a continuous tape loop) as the medium for storing data.

Another characteristic of Sinclair, launching products before they were really ready, reached its apotheosis in the high-profile launch of the QL. At the time, not even the company's engineers had seen a complete working prototype. The consequent deficiencies in the machine, and the delay of around a year before the QL became an available and adequate computer, prevented the support of a maturing market which, although ready for a product of this type, was wary of investing in unconventional technologies. There was very little software available at the time of the launch. Poor quality control, from Sinclair's practice of contracting out the manufacture of his products, meant that too many machines did not work when they reached customers. Alan Sugar was quoted as saying that Sinclair's quality control was "atrocious”. These shortcomings were also factors in the fail- ure of the QL. The public did not want an “innovative” machine for which they would, as Sinclair’s staff belatedly admitted, form a test-bed. They wanted a reliable, functional and staid application of proven technology.

The working man’s boffin

The significance of Sir Clive’s corporate decline, otherwise a minor event in the commercial world, is that he has worn the mantle of a great British inventor (the term he prefers), innovator and entrepreneur. He has been identified in the public eye with the visible application of microchip technology—what might be termed high-street high-tech. His corporate failings are likely to be equated with the failure of British “high technology” as commonly understood. In fact, Sir Clive’s talents lie in absorbing and adapting original research to develop inexpensive products, often of dubious utility (witness the flat-screen pocket television and the C5 electric tricycle), and marketing them initially by mail order to increase his profit margins and finance his production. People confuse his valid commercial role (where validity can be measured in terms of corporate profits and marketing success), with the popular myth of the inventor beavering away in his lab. The image of Uncle Clive, the working man's boffin, is one that Sinclair's public relations machine has relentlessly promoted. We should base any assessment of Sir Clive's prospects not only on his success or otherwise in direc- ting his R&D staff creatively to exploit existing technology, but also his recurrent problems with production and occa- sional failures, both technical and commercial.

What of the future for Sinclair Research? One major factor is cash flow. There may be no current debts, and some retained profit from the deal with Amstrad, but apparently the only income will be royalties received from ICL on sales of the modified Sinclair technology incorporated in the One-Per-Desk, "workstation"—an intelligent telephone system—plus any of his own assets (much diminished by the fiasco of the C5) that Sir Clive chooses to make available. Any future must depend on bringing new and viable products to the market quickly, or attracting sufficient financial backing for longer-term ventures.

Leaving aside Sinclair's declared intention to become a "think-tank" for selected clients—a dubious role for the "visionary" who brought us the C$, one might think— Sinclair has three projects in prospect. On the computer front, the company is developing Pandora, a portable micro- computer, bearing a remarkable resemblance to the original QL, but by all accounts omitting microdrives in favour of 3:5-inch disk drives. That Sinclair is still revising the specifi- cation of this product suggests a state of confusion that does not bode well for the timely arrival of a competitive and functional product. Amstrad has first refusal on marketing the Pandora, and it is unlikely to take on anything unless it accords with Alan Sugar's dictum of “the right product, at the right price, and at the right time". On past form, Sinclair's R&D team seem unlikely to achieve this, leaving Sinclair

Research the task of starting again with minimal resources and little credibility as a designer of computers, in a field where companies such as Epson, NEC and Tandy are expending intense technical effort.

The second project, emanating from Sinclair's low-profile telecommunications laboratory based in Winchester, is the cheap portable telephone for cellular networks. This will sell for less than £100, says Sir Clive, tilting at his magic figure once again. The product should be on the market in 18 months’ time. This is manifestly a viable product, as Alan Sugar has also decided, since his company also intends to produce one. So the company jointly created by Timex and Sinclair to produce the telephone faces intense competition in an area where mere corner-cutting on the costs of components and production in the classic Sinclair style will not succeed in the long term—any more than Sinclair’s computers faced up to Amstrad’s challenge.

The third and most intriguing option—and the one which Presents the most daunting technical challenges—is wafer- scale integration. This approach to the design of semicon- ductors offers financial savings by producing complete processing systems, laid down on a single wafer of silicon. It

could also pave the way towards compact implementation of the new generation of processing techniques currently under development. The opening in 1983 of the prestigious Metalab research unit near Cambridge provided a base for the real- isation of Sir Clive's visions, among them the much- publicised "Fifth Generation" project to develop artificial intelligence. Sinclair made patriotic noises about beating the Japanese at their own game—whatever that might be, and to what end. One of the elements of this fantasy was the investigation of wafer-scale integration.

Sir Clive's initiation into the world of the wafer took place in the summer of 1983, with the arrival of Ivor Catt who had answered Sinclairs advertisement for people to work at Metalab. Depending on who you talk to in the generally conservative semiconductor industry, Catt is either a crank or a visionary. For 20 years, he had been refining the theoretical foundations for a revolution in the semiconductor industry, and thus was tailor-made for the Sinclair project. Sir Clive took on Catt as a consultant and bought up Catt's patents to the wafer-scale process.

Catt himself has succinctly summarised the appeal of the wafer against existing chips and methods of manufacture:

"I noticed that the silicon wafer was a hundredth of the cost of the total system, so why not use that cheap commodity to build the system on the wafer instead of sawing it up to form separate circuits?"

Currently, the computer industry produces multiple chips on each wafer of silicon. The production process involves: chopping up the wafer, testing each chip and then separating the working chips from a significant number of faulty chips. The working chips, after mounting, wiring and packaging in plastic, become part of a larger system mounted on a printed circuit board. Catt's alternative method involves preserving the entire wafer (including the faulty chips), which has inter- nal connections between chips so as to eliminate the printed circuit board. It also avoids the need to test and encapsulate each chip. An electronic logic test built into the wafer circuitry allows each chip to be tested. If functional, the chip becomes incorporated in the circuit and then tests an adja- cent chip. Faulty chips are bypassed as a spiral sequence of working chips is established on the wafer. The simplest form would be a memory wafer, but there is a potential to develop new, alternative computer architectures on the wafer.

Throughout the 1970s, the attempt to realise such a

product dominated the R&D strategies of many of the semi- conductor giants. ITT, Texas Instruments and Burroughs, among others, sunk undisclosed fortunes into the dream. The kiss of death for the wafer as an investment option was the debacle of Gene Amdahl, formerly a designer with IBM. Amdahl’s pursuit of a “supercomputer” based on the wafer- scale attracted around $240 million in backing from heavy- weights that included Sperry, Digital Equipment and the Bull Corporation of France. By June 1984, Amdahl’s company, Trilogy, had conceded that it could not overcome the prob- lems of implementing its version of wafer-scale technology.

The failure of the big boys came as no surprise to Ivor Catt, whose approach had always radically differed from those of his rivals. Axiomatic to Catt’s technique was a reduction in the number of connections made to the chip. In the latter stages of Amdahl's mega-wafer, the doomed prototype had an astounding 1200 pins packed on to its 6-4-centimetre design. Since, according to Catt's theoretical design, communication with the wafer passed through the first chip on the spiral, his chips were designed as bipolar components, thus needing only two pins as connections.

Investment in the wafer

After years in the wilderness, the National Research Devel- opment Corporation eventually funded Catt's theories in the late 1970s. This at least enabled him to patent their impli- cations. At Middlesex Polytechnic, Malcolm Wilkinson ran a research team which examined the problems of imple- menting Catt's work. Wilkinson and his team went on to develop their research with Burroughs, where they success- fully realised a provisional "test structure". At this point, the project fell foul of company politics. A new and predom- inantly American management, presumably with the experi- ence of Amdahl fresh in their minds, wanted nothing to do with research into wafer-scale technology.

Sir Clive's interest in the technology could hardly have come at a more opportune moment. At the end of 1983, his relatively small, if momentarily profitable, company was able to poach not only Catt, but Wilkinson and a significant proportion of the team from Burroughs. In time, valuable additions from research groups working in related tech- nologies from Plessey, TI, STL and DEC, would arrive.

Although association with wafer technology does nothing to enhance his self-styled stance as inventor and innovator, Sir Clive's support of these discredited research Objectives was undoubtedly a canny move at a time when Sinclair Research was in a position to fund such an enterprise. In acquiring Catt, Wilkinson et al. and the wafer-scale patents, en masse and cut-price, it is arguable that Sir Clive was making an acceptable high-risk investment in the future. Sinclair's appropriation of Catt's work mirrors his advocation and adoption of Denis Gabor's work in the development of flat- screen technology at Imperial College in the late 1950s.

In a relatively short time it looked as if the investment would pay dividends. By spring 1985, Wilkinson's research suggested that the company could economically produce a wafer with a memory of half a megabyte for Sinclair's ill-fated QL microcomputer. Unfortunately, at the same time, the price of conventional memory chips fell dramatically. A few weeks later the financial crisis at Sinclair Research came to a head, precipitating the sequence of events which ended in the abortive "rescue" by Robert Maxwell. It seems likely that Sir Clive's preoccupation with the wafer-scale project exacerbated his lack of interest in the computer division of Sinclair Research, hastening a deterioration of the financial crisis to the point of no return. The fact that Sir Clive later turned down an offer that would have ensured the survival of the computer products tends to support the impression that, as far as he was concerned, home computers were history. However, while Sinclair may have been intrigued by the "intellectual challenge" of wafer-scale, it is equally clear that his much-lauded vision was decidedly myopic.

- 6 -

As soon as it became apparent that wafers with memories were unlikely to provide the funding for more sophisticated research, Robb Wilmot, chairman of ICL, was recruited onto the research board as troubleshooter.

Wilmot’s brief was to drum up investment for the wafer- scale project. He soon recognised a potential that had eluded Sir Clive. Up until Wilmot's intervention, Sir Clive's exclu- sive direction for research into wafer-scales was towards the enhancement and development of Sinclair's existing tech- nology and projects. Wilmot approached the problem of investment with the conviction that a solution to the pro- duction of wafer-scale chips could propel Sinclair Research into a position where the company would challenge the leaders of the semiconductor industry.

According to Wilmot, wafer-scale chips could revolutionise the design and production of all types of computers, and play a major role in communications products and defence systems (particularly radar equipment). In other words, the development of wafer-scale technology seemed poised to take Sinclair Research well out of its depth. Ironically, the company's capacity to raise finance was in a sense impeded by the exciting potential of its R&D resources. The public's recognition of Sinclair Research's managerial, marketing and financial shortcomings called into question its corporate ability to exploit effectively such an innovation. During the crisis in 1985, the odds were stacked against even ICL's well- connected supremo, Wilmot, coming up with a result. Malcolm Wilkinson sums up the difficulties facing the project, which are the same today as they were six months ago: “It’s semiconductors, which are bad news 10 the City at the moment... It’s wafer-scale technology, which has had some notable failures . . . and then there are the problems that Sinclair Research has got, and questions about the viability of the business side of it.”

As a broker commented when the price of shares in Amstrad fell following the announcement of the deal with Sinclair, "The City . . . gets wobbles in the stomach when the name of Sinclair is mentioned.” In the event, Wilmot failed to find the backers. A fortuitous deal with the Dixon chain of shops enabled Sir Clive's company to struggle on into the New Year until Alan Sugar came to the rescue in April.

With the Amstrad deal came the announcement that two separate companies would continue the projects on the radio telephone and wafer-scale technology. Sir Clive made it clear that he would have no part in the day-to-day running of either corporation. Barclays, the company's bankers, agreed to a limited investment package for wafer-scale technology with Sir Clive retaining a majority interest in the company, and the bank having an option to take up minority holdings. Desper- ately under-capitalised, it is hardly surprising that the team researching into wafer-scale technology is directing its atten- tion towards distinctly unspectacular goals. The only project announced by the company is a wafer with a memory of 5 megabytes. It remains to be seen whether the experimental pilot production achieved in September 1985 can be sufficiently improved to create a product that can compete with conventional memory components in 1987.

Ivor Catt has always insisted that memory products are merely an incidental spin-off from the main work of wafer- scale development. The main purpose of wafer-scale tech- nology, he believes, is to assist in the design of systems that will revolutionise computer architecture. A growing number of computer theorists are inclined to view these developments with interest, but Sinclair's company is hardly in a position to fund such ambitious research programes. So while wafers may yet hold a hope for the future, it seems unlikely that they hold out much hope for Sir Clive. ር]

lan Adamson and Richard Kennedy are freelance authors and journalists. They have based this article on research for Uncle Clive, a

critique of Clive Sinclair's technical and managerial practice, to be published by Penguin Books next September.

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Reprinted from S.U.M. May/36

Product/Dealer News

Gulf Micro Electronics, 1317 Stratford Ave., Panama City, FL 32404, has available a comprehensive software package on either cassette or special expanded version on disc for Aerco FD-68 users. Entitled SMART TEXT TS- 2068, the author, Bill Jones, refers to the package as "Administrative Software". There are four operating pro- grams, including a Data Base, a Word Processor, a Mail- ing List Manager, and a special Printer Patch program. Disc version comes with an automatic, self-adapting version of Printer Patch, and a Program Tutor file. Both versions come with full documentation. Price $34.00 ppd. When requesting information, ask about new versions for the Oliger Disk System and Zebra's 05-64 Cartridge.

Speaking of Aerco's popular disc system, there is a specialty user group catering to this system and a news- letter which is publsihed quarterly. Cost for a one year

subscription is $15. For information, write to: David Hill, 1159 S. Shore Dr. #12, Holland, MI 49423.

You might also consider subscribing to a cassette- based magazine for the T/S 2068 called BYTE POWER. Each

tape has programs ranging from Arcade games to Business programs. There are also reviews and programming tips. One tape (sample issue) is $5.50. Six issues, $29.99, and 12 issues for $49.99. Send check or money order to:

Byte Power, 1748 Meadowview Ave., Pickering, Ontario, Canada L1V 308. Sprite graphics, the key to successful game pro-

gramming is an area that hasn't been addressed too often for the 2068. Now two programmers (from separate states) have collaborated on a new software development package called SPRITES 2068. It contains several machine code utilities, demos, and a 34 page manual. Priced now at $19 ppd. Send check or money order and inquiries to either: Vern Tidwell, 1303 Whitehead St., Key West, FL 33040, or Ron Ruegg, 37529 Perkins Road, Prairieville, LA 70769.

Beaver Computer Products, 999 Munroe Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R2K 1J4, the company that features "extended video mode" software for the T/S 2068, has some new titles. "Beaver Writer" is touted as the first 80 column word processor for the 2068, and "Character Font Generator" lets you add character (pun intended) to programs and text. Prices: Beaver Writer, $25 (U.S.), Character Font Generator, $15 (U.S.). A catalog which includes a demo tape is available for $1.50 (U.S.).

Some very exciting software has been developed ኩሃ another Canadian company called Novelsoft (106 Seventh Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8V 3B4). Some of you may be familiar with David ር. Ridge, who has had ከ15 ARTWORX marketed in Great Britain for the Spectrum, and is currently the Senior Programmer for Novelsoft. Now there is an improved version of his popular graphics package for the T/S 2068 called ARTWORX version 1.1. It is priced at $19.95 (U.S.) + $3 postage. Another program being offered for the 2068, and should sell quite well here in the states, is a Basic Compiler called TIMACHINE and is reported to outperform any compiler on the market today for the Timex. Timachine will handle all Basic commands (except 1/0), and will convert your program to fast machine code in seconds. The program is priced at $19.95 (U.S.) * $3 postage.

A.F.R. Software, 1605 Pennsylvania Ave. £204, Miami Beach, FL 33139, has three software programs for the T/S 1000/1500/2X81 (and versions for the 2068). ZX-TEXT is a word processor, ZX-CALC is professional spreadsheet program and accounting model package, and ZX-CALENDER is time-management program. All three titles are priced at $16.95 each * $3 postage.

BF Kimbrough KEL "In-Memory Operating System Ver.

1.0" for the T/S 1000 and ZX81, is an interesting soft- ware utility. It is written in relocatable machine code and operates in BASIC or user defined area. The oper-

ating system also features ten user-definable function

keys. Price: $7.97. Send check or money order to: ፪፻ Kimbrough, 723 Roselle Ave. Flr 2, Akron, OH 44307.

COMLINK I is an RS-232 serial communications inter- face for the T/S 1000 and ZX81. All software is in EPROM for instant loading, and COMLINK I can be used with any 300 baud modem. All operating power is derived from the Sinclair. The advanced software is menu-driven and has many features including user defined Macro keys, auto- repeat, expanded character set, and more. For further information and prices, write to: A. Eckhardt, 918 Anna Street, Boalsburg, PA 16827.

Curry Computer, PO Box 5607, Glendale, AZ 85312, has obtained the exclusive marketing rights to an out- standing line of software developed in France, Pyramide Software for the QL, is popular in Europe, and has now come to America (thanks to Curry). WANDERER is a 3-D space arcade game that requires the user to wear the supplied red/blue glasses. VROOM is a racing simulation. The driver sits in a Grand Prix racer, and maneuvers around five different tracks. QL-PEINTRE is a graphic- design package that is very similar to MacDraw and Mac- Paint. OTHELLO is a 3-D (no glasses required with this one) version of the classic game. Write to Curry for a complete catalog with prices.

PCIMPORT is a program that permits your QL to down- load ASCII files from an IBM PC via direct link. This permits the transfer of documents, program source code or any other ASCII encoded file from the IBM ቦር to the QL. Also included is a conversion program that converts Micro Soft Basic to QL Super Basic. For a catalog of QL items and prices (including PCIMPORT), write to: MIN-NY Electronics Inc., 7332 Douglas Dr., No. Brooklyn Park, MN 55443,

A+ Computer Response of Keene, New Hampshire, has added five new American QL dealers to their list, making a total of 17. The new dealers are: Markel Enterprises, PO Box 2392, Secaucus, NJ 07094; C.W. Associates, 419 N. Johnson St., Ada, OH 45810; Variety Sales, 325 W. Jersey St., Elizabeth, NJ 07202; Quantum Computing, 8 Gillen Street, Mine Hill, NJ 07801; and Info-Mation, RR#1 Box 260, California, MO 65018.

The Second Annual Mid-West Timex/Sinclair Computer- fest will be held in Indianapolis, Indiana on the first weekend of May 1987. The core of organizers for the Cincinnati show are currently slating plans for the 1987 "reunion" of dealers, exhibitors, and Sinclair fans from the mid-west and virtually everywhere else. If you would like to obtain some preliminary information...write to: Frank Davis, 513 East Main St., Peru, IN 46970 (send a S.A.S.E.) or call (evenings) 317-473-4885. There has been interest expressed in T/S Computerfests for the New York/New Jersey area, and for the west coast (possibly San Francisco?), but so far, nothing definite has been planned.

"Commrades...a1] together now...enter the keyword [PRINT] and followed by CARL MARX in quotations." And its all for the good of the party! Whats going on here? The Polish government is about to receive 800,000 Timex 2068's and 200,000 FDD-3000 Dual 3" Disk Drive Systems, to be used in public schools and institutions. The "iron curtain" deal was recently struck between the Timex Corporation and a Polish industrial firm (through a neutral distribution agency. 0.K., now how many issues of TDM should be shipped?

The temporary shortage of three inch (Hitachi type) floppy disks is over...and supplys are very good. The following companies have the "special" disks in stock for immediate shipping: Zebra Systems Inc., (718) 296- 2385; Peripherals Direct, (312) 498-9244; Speedysoft (London, England) 01-789-8546; various other dealers around Great Britain. Resulting from a recent deal struck between Amstrad International and Sears, various selected Sears outlets will carry the 3" disks.

-8-

The following is reprinted from The Plotter, Vol 2, # 7 « 8.

EXTENDED BASIC FOR THE TS 1000

by Dick Wagner, CCAT/S

Extended Basic will put new life into your computer, give you FAST performanc, and will provide you with some new programming tools now used on the 2068 computer. Extended Basic is a program that uses machine code stored in REM 0 and is accessed ANY time in your program with REM and then the command written out (no keywords). Thus you can mix Sinclair Basic with Entended Basic freely, use Extended Basic or Sinclair Basic alone. The interpreter is called with GOSUB 0 in the line ahead of the REM Extended Basic statement.

There are 22 new commands at your disposal, you can put multiple comnands and statements in a line, you can use all 24 lines, and PRINT automatically.

Here are some of the commands that make this program so interesting DRAW, UNDRAW, RESTORE, DATA, READ, FILL, MOVE, CIRCLE, UNCIRCLE, PAPER, UNPAPER, and SCROLL. Some of these are duplicates of 2068 comnands.

So called "standard" commands such as LEFT$, MID$, and RIGHT$ are provided which is helpful for other makes of computers. DATA, READ, and RESTORE permit the use of a DATA statement and then READ it into a program. Thus you can use many 2068 programs using such data input methods.

INPUT and OUTPUT are new to you. KEY replaces INKEYS$ while IN and OUT permit access to the rear port to control peripheral equipment. KEY will return values of multiple key presses. IN and OUT works in

! i ! ! ! ! ? ? ? ? i ? H 2 ! ? ! ? H 2 i ? ! ! ! t ! ! ? 2 H ? a ? ? 2 2 2 2 2 ! ? ! ? ? ? 2 2 ! ! ! ! !

either FAST or SLOW modes and control and get data from any I/O mapped device and maintain a continuous display.

There are 11 ERROR CODES that indicate the kind of error and where it happened. This program can be merged with any program of less than 8K length and be put into REM O so it works properly.

EXTENDE BASIC is available on cassette from Thomas B. Woods for U.S.$19.95 + $1.50 5፳ከ. Send to P.O. Box 64, Jefferson, NH 03583.

‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩሩሩሩ‹ሩ‹ሩ‹ሩ<ሩሩ‹ሩሩ<ሩረሩሩ<ሩ<ሩ<ሩ<<ሩሩ<ሩ<ሩረሩሩ

2068 TIPS

-- To find out how much memory you have when using the SPECTRUM ROM try this line: PRINT 65536 USR 7962. The result is the same as the FREE command on the 2068.

-- When saving a multi-part program, insert POKE 23736,181 between the SAVE statements and the computer will then SAVE all the parts of the program without the " Start the Tape" prompt.