December 1955 - Volume 2 - Number 6




The News in Review





The General Assembly in Brief






International Meetings

Suggested Reading List

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Nobel Peace Prize

HE Nobel Peace Prize for 1954 has

been awarded to the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees. “To receive the Nobel Prize for Peace is a signal honor and the greatest pos- sible stimulant to speed up action on behalf of refugees with whose tragic fate we are concerned,” Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart said on the day the announcement was made. “The award of the Nobel Prize for Peace to the High Commissioner's Office the deep humanitarian feelings of those who carry out the will of Alfred Nobel, to whose generosity the world owes a debt of profound gratitude


van Heuven Goedhart

Dr. G J

Dr. Van Heuven Goedhart pointed out that Fridtjof Nansen received the prize personally in 1922; in 1938, eight years after his death the prize was awarded to the Office for Refugees


Secretary-General Dag Hammars- kjold sent the following message to Dr. Van Heuven Goedhart, in Geneva. “The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is welcomed as a token of recognition of the valuable humanitarian work of this organ established by the General As- sembly. Warmest good wishes to you and your staff.” (For Assembly action on the refugee problem see page 19.)


Following a request by the U.S.S.R the Disarmament Commission met on October 21 to consider the report of the Disarmament Subcommittee and the report which the Commission itsel} must make to the Assembly and the Security Council. At the end of two full meetings, the first since Novem- ber 19, 1954, the Commission ad journed without setting a date for its next meeting. Several marked on the size of the report delivered to them only that morning,

speakers re

and said they needed more time to study it. At the end of the debate, Selim Sarper, of Turkey, Commission Chairman, observed that it seemed to him the general opinion that further meetings of the Commission would be most useful when members were able to take full account of the records and reports of the Subcommittee and also of the might be expressed by the Foreign Ministers of France, the United King dom, the United States and the Soviet Union. who were meeting in Geneva on October

proposals and views which


Food and Health

A joint conference held recently in Geneva by the World Health Organi- zation and the Food and Agriculture Organization has decided that inter- national action on food additives is necessary. As a first step, it recom- mended uniform methods for evaluat- ing the safety of food additives and formulation of general principles gov- erning their use. In addition, it agreed that the wHo and Fao should collect and disseminate information on per- tinent legislation and on the various properties and effects of individual additives and further, that they should assist in the coordination of investiga- tions in order to prevent overlapping and duplication of research

Of the classes of additives now in use, the Conference recommended that

priority should be given to the work concerning food colors, preservatives and emulsifiers. More than 2,000 syn- thetic dyes have been prepared but only about eighty are currently per mitted in foods. There is no interna- tionally-agreed list for either synthetic or natural colors although attempts have been made to obtain regional ac ceptance in Europe of a list of seven synthetic and five natural colors Preservatives are especially impor tant in tropical areas, where storage presents special problems, and are valuable generally in limiting wastage and deterioration in the world’s food supplies. Emulsifiers are of special significance in bakery products.


A United Nations visiting mission has left for West Africa to study at first hand conditions in the two Trust Territories of the Cameroons under French and British administration. It is the third mission to visit the areas since 1947. Members are Max Dorsin ville, Haiti, Chairman; Hsi-kun Yang China; Edward W. Mulcahy, United States; and Robert Scheyven, Bel- guim.

The Council has named Belgium, India, Guatemala and the United Kingdom as members of its next visit- ing mission scheduled to go to the four Trust Territories in the Pacific in 1956. The territories are Australian administered Nauru and New Guinea Western Samoa administered by New Zealand and the Pacific Islands ad ministered by the United States

Air Travel

A meeting of the International Civil Manila has recommended fifty-two important changes to the International Standards

Aviation Organization § in

and Recommended Practices on Facilitation and made seventeen other

recommendations also designed to re

duce the red tape involved on border crossings and make travel between nations simpler and less costly.

The meeting’s recommendations must be approved by the Council of icaod, They include adoption of a policy aimed at the early elimination of the passenger manifest and the later elimi- nation of the embarkation/disembarka- tion card which involves acceptance by Member states of a general declara- tion signed by an authorized agent. The amendments will assist the opera- tion of non-scheduled aircraft, for they simplify existing requirements for these aircraft to give notice of arrival in foreign countries and to receive prior permission for their flights. In future, too, non-scheduled aircraft which remain in a foreign country for not more than forty-eight hours will not require a “carnet de douanes.”

Resources of the Sea

The newly-formed International Ad visory Committee on Marine Sciences set up by the United Nations Educa- tional, Scientific and Cultural Organi- zation and which met recently in

Tokyo UNESCO to pool scientific

represents a new effort by know ledge on an international scale to develop methods of investigating the resources of the sea, UNEsco's Arid Zone Com founded in 1951, has already hegun such an attack on the question


of developing the world's dry regions Korea

More than 92,000 families in the Republic of Korea have benefited from the 464 community development projects ¢ arried out to date by village residents with the help of the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency

Since the program was started in April 1953

irrigation reservoirs and canals, public

communities have built

wells, roads, small bridges, flood con trol dikes sewage systems, and facilities for new

village industries. All the work has

seawalls, drainage and

been done by local residents, who have voluntarily donated some 560,000 man-hours of labor. UNKRaA has pro vided 19.382.000 hwan (about $60 000) in support of the projects. The UNKRA funds were used as incentive payments to the rural communities during the seasonal periods when resi dents would not be otherwise em ployed

Major construction work has started on a new cement plant in Mungyong Pukdo l he

County Kyongsang

project is the largest ever undertaken by UNKRA and will give the Republic designed to 200,000 tons of cement a

its largest cement plant produce year

Israel-Arab Relations

Secretary-General Dag Hammarsk- jold met on November 3 with Am- bassador Hervé Alphand, of France, Sir Pierson Dixon, of the United King- dom, and Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., of the United States

The Secretary-General informed the Representatives of the three Govern- ments, on the basis of reports received from United Nations military ob- servers, concerning the latest develop- ments in the El Auja Demilitarized Zone and consulted with them regard- ing these developments

General Burns

After talks with Lieutenant Gen eral E. L. M. Burns, Chief of Staff of the United Nations Truce Super- vision Organization, during his recent visit to United Nations Headquarters, and with the Representatives to the United Nations of France, the United Kingdom and the United States prior to the incident, Mr Hammarskjéld submitted to the Rep resentatives of Egypt and Israel certain

latest serious

proposals for reestablishing order and stability in the El Auja Demilitarized Zone They were submitted by the Secretary-General on his behalf and on behalf of General Burns

Mr. Hammarskjold expressed grave concern to the Permanent Representa tive of Israel at the military action by the Israeli Army in the El Auja De militarized Zone which took place on November 2. The Secretary-General in his protest drew attention, in par ticular the Israeli

to the restrictions placed by authorities on the free movement of United Nations observers in the El Auja area immediately be fore and during the attack


David Arthur Davies, United Kine dom Secretary General o; the World Me teorological pleted arrangements at Headquarters

Oreanization com

for the Hurricane Seminar to be held in Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Repub

lic, from February 16 through 25, 1956 which will bring together experts from various regions affected by tropi- cal storms. The hurricanes originating in the Caribbean area which have wrought such havoc during recent years in the eastern United States are similar to the tropical cyclones of the Indian Ocean region and the typhoons of the China Sea. The importance of the study of these storms and of pos- sible improvements in prediction and protection methods is underlined by the scale of the destruction for which they are responsible


An International Training Centre on Inland Fisheries and Fish Culture opened at Bogor, Java, on October 31. Organized by the Food and Agricul- ture Organization in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia and the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, the Centre, which has participants from eleven countries and territories, will run through December 10. The pro- gram offers advanced training to gov- ernment officers in the work required in their own countries to assess and utilize inland fishery struction includes basic principles of limnology, operation of small, con- trolled water maintained simply for fish production, and the wider field of improving fish produc- tion in natural fresh and brackish water areas. Methods of management such as the addition of nutrients to the waters, the control of predators and water weeds and the introduction of new species of fish are being reviewed

resources. In-

bodies of


The International Bank for Recon- struction and Development has made a loan of $5.3 million to assist in financing the modernization of steel plate rolling facilities of the Yawata Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., of Japan. The loan will pay for importing equipment needed to install a modern steel plate mill plant at the city of Yawata on Kyushu Island. The new mill will re- place three outmoded plate mills in- stalled between 1905 and 1928 and Total cost of the project will amount to the equivalent of about $15.6 million

still in operation

The United Kingdom and Canada have signed the Articles of Agreement of the International Finance Corpora tion, the proposed new affiliate of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development posited an Instrument of Acceptance completing the formal action neces sary for membership in the Corpora- tion. An additional twenty-nine of the Bank's fifty-eight member countries have expressly indicated that they are

Canada also de-

in favor of membership in the 1rc. The proposed subscriptions of these countries, together with those of the twenty listed above, total $88,951,000. [he Corporation will come into being when thirty governments have sub- scribed $75 million to its capital. . .

In the context of the work on a comprehensive plan for the irrigation use of the waters of the Indus system of rivers, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan, with the good offices of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- ment, have entered into a new ad hoc transitional agreement covering the winter cropping period. This agree- ment was signed in Washington, D. C.., on October 31, 1955, by the leaders of the Indian and Pakistan delegations now in Washington.

The new inter-Governmental agree- ment continues, for the period Octo- ber 1, 1955, to March 31, 1956, ar- rangements’ establishing ad hoc amounts for additional canal with- drawals by India from the three East- ern Rivers Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, on lines similar to those established by the previous transitional agreement, which ran from April 1, 1955, to Sep- tember 30, 1955. The terminal date for the discussions on the preparation of a comprehensive plan has been ex- tended by agreement between the two Governments and the Bank to March 31, 1956.

Technical Assistance

Mrs. Georgette Ciselet, of Belgium, presided at the pledging conference for the Expanded Program of Tech- nical Assistance on October 26. The participants announced that their con- tributions for 1956 would be either equal to or larger than those for 1955, Mrs. Ciselet observed. (See page 43.) Even those participants unable to make pledges at the time had indicated that their contributions would not be below those for 1955, Mrs. Ciselet said. Describing the contribution of the United States as generous, Mrs Ciselet pointed out that if it was to be matched by an equal amount from

Mrs. Georgette Ciselet

all other countries more such contribu- tions would be needed. A lawyer and author on legal subjects, Mrs. Ciselet has represented Belgium in the Eco- nomic and Social Council and as a Delegate to several General Assem- blies. She was elected President of the Conference by acclamation

Israel, whose program of oil ex- ploration has been rewarded by the discovery of the first commercial oil, has requested the United Nations to extend through 1956 the services of Eugene B. Thomas, a seismic special- ist, and if possible to recruit another petroleum engineer for seismological work in Israel. Since 1953 a number of experts, made available under the United Nations technical assistance program, have been working with the Israeli authorities on oil explora- tion.

The Technical Assistance Board has appointed Huntington Gilchrist, United States, Resident Representative in Pak- istan. Last year, the United Nations and specialized agencies sent seventy- two international experts to Pakistan and awarded forty-eight fellowships to Pakistani nationals for study abroad. There are currently forty-nine experts in the country

L. R. H. Chapman, British educa- tor, who has spent the past three decades in the Middle East, is in Leb- anon to work with the Arab refugee school program operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency and the United Nations Edu cational, Scientific and Cultural Or- ganization. (See page 11.) Mr. Chap man will serve as a specialist in the English teaching for these schools now accommodating more than 100,000 Arab refugee children.

Dr. H. F. Nordstrom, director of the Swedish State Shipbuilding Experi- mental Tank at Gothenburg, until his retirement last year, is in India to work at India’s Central Water and Power Research Station at Poona, 120 miles from Bombay, where the first ship-model testing tank in Southeast Asia was installed in 1953 by Indian

engineers and a UNESCO technical as sistance expert with the aid of a $30,- OOO grant from UNESCO

Kendrick, a

engineer, is in Guatemala to join a

John veteran British UNESCO team working on a large-scale program to reorganize and expand vocational training in the country

A. Swedish industrial engineer, Pro- fessor Olle Rimer, has been assigned by UNESCO to teach engineering at the Indian Kharagpur, near Calcutta Rimer will join an international team of scientists which has been working with the Institute of Tech nology since 1951

Institute of Technology at



Harry S. Truman, former President of the United States, and Mrs. Truman visited Headquarters recently and were entertained by the Secretary-General

Industrial Production Up

The mines and factories of the world produced more in the first six months of 1955 than they did in the entire year of 1938, according to a recent issue of the United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics

The industrial production index of the world, (excluding the U.S.S.R., People’s Republic of China and East ern Europe), reached a new high level in the months of the second quarter being one and one-half times that of the average quarterly level of 1948 Compared with the corresponding six months of 1954, total industrial out put rose by nine per cent.

Ihe main forces behind these in creases were the gains in production recorded by the heavy industry of the world. Production of the metal-pro- ducing and metal-consuming com ponents together with the rapidly in creasing chemical industry rose at a greater rate than textiles production and food processing.

Ihe combined index of industrial production for the countries of West- ern Europe stood at 179 in the second quarter of 1955 on the basis of 1948 100. In addition to being the highest mark yet achieved, the results for these three months were nine per cent higher than the level of output in the corresponding period of last year. Additionally, the output for the half-year under review exceeded that of any similar period and was seventy five per cent higher than the average half-yearly production in 1948. Al though the indexes of industrial pro duction for the several countries of this region show considerable variation in relative improvement since 1948, it was noted that in no country was pro duction in the first half of 1955 below that of 1954

Production of basic raw materials for industry was greater than in any previous period except for a decline in tin output. Among commodities exceeding earlier high levels were steel, pigiron, petroleum, electricity, copper, lead, zinc, and aluminum


successful was last summer’s International Confer- \” ence on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy that a second one will be held under United Nations auspices in the next two or three years. To assist the Secretary- General with plans and preparations, the Advisory Committee set up for the 1955 conference will be con tinued

The General Assembly's First (Political and Se- curity) Committee has so recommended, and there seemed no doubt that the Assembly itself would adopt this recommendation

Ihe Committee devoted sixteen meetings between October 7 and 28 to atoms for peace, strove through difficult negotiations and debate to achieve unanimity, and recommended for the Assembly's approval—almost unanimously——a significant draft resolution which not only provided for the future conference but presented a positive position on the direction in which work should proceed on establishment of a proposed International! Atomic Energy Agency

The vote in the Committee was 53 in favor to none against. Six Arab states did not vote with the majority but chose to abstain. Thus there was virtually unani mous support for the announced expansion of the group of states negotiating a draft statute for the Agency and the announced intention to call another international conference on the final text of that statute

Iwo outstanding issues remained for further efforts to reach an understanding—the relationship of the Agency with the United Nations, which the Secretary General will study in consultation with the Advisory Committee, and the actual membership of the Agency

Final action on the Committee's recommendations had not been taken by the Assembly in plenary meeting at the time of the Review's going to press

Early in the Committee's deliberations, at the invita tion of the Committee, Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, of India President of the 1955 Atoms for Peace Conference in Geneva, gave an address on the work of that confer ence. No scientific conference of its magnitude and importance had ever been held, he declared

During consideration of atoms for peace in the Committee, the draft resolution originally sponsored


by the United Kingdom and the United States gained sixteen additional sponsors. First Australia joined them, then Belgium, Brazil, Canada and the Union of South Africa; then Israel and Mexico; next the Netherlands; then Argentina, Norway and Peru; next Denmark, Ice- land and Sweden; then Turkey; and finally Luxembourg

As first presented, that draft resolution recalled the Assembly's hope in 1954 that an International Atomic Energy Agency would be established promptly and noted with satisfaction substantial progress toward negotiation of a draft statute establishing the Agency and circulation of the draft among governments for consideration and comment

Agreement by Early 1956

In this connection, John O. Pastore, of the United States, told the Committee on October 7 that general agreement on the statute could likely be reached by the beginning of 1956. In pursuance of the Assembly's 1954 resolution, the eight states interested in setting the Agency up—Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Por tugal, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States——-had prepared the draft statute which had been communicated to the Soviet Union on July 29. Mr. Pastore said that the U.S.S.R.’s com ments had just been received by the United States which would consider them carefully. On August 22, the United States had circulated the draft to all Members of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies

In preparing the draft, the eight states had desired to expedite the setting up of the Agency. Hence several questions would not be answered until it came into existence. The statute provided a broad constitutional framework allowing for growth in any desired direc tion. The sole limitation on the functions of the Agency was that it confine itself to the peaceful uses of atomic energy.

Location of the Agency's headquarters and its initial functions would be decided, after its establishment, by its members and board of governors. The eight states had based their proposals on suggestions made during the discussions at the 1954 Assembly session and had

incorporated most of them. In particular, provision had been made for states which primarily would be bene- ficiaries of, rather than contributors to, the Agency to be represented on the board of governors. That sug- gestion had been made by Pakistan, supported by The United States, acting on behalf of the sponsoring states, would be glad to receive as soon as


possible the comments and suggestions of other states which had been sent copies of the draft

In view of their efforts to incorporate the suggestions made during the previous year, the authors of the draft hoped agreement could be reached in early 1956

Once the Agency was established, it would negotiate an agreement with the United Nations, Mr. Pastore stated. In 1954, the United States had felt that that agreement should be similar to those linking the spe- cialized agencies with the United Nations. Although the Assembly’s 1954 resolution did not mention that point, the United States still felt that relations between the United Nations and the new Agency could best be in that same form

As for the International Conference on the Peace- ful Uses of Atomic Energy, the joint draft resolution

Anthony Nutting, above, the United Kingdom's Minister of State for For- eign Affairs, and V. K. Krishna Menon, Chairman of the delegation

of India.

expressed the Assembly's satisfaction with the proceed- ings, commended the participants for the high scientific quality of their papers and discussions and for the spirit of cooperation which prevailed, and expressed ap- preciation of the work of the Secretary-General and the Advisory Committee in preparing and organizing the conference. It then recommended that a second inter- national conference for the exchange of technical in- formation regarding the peaceful uses of atomic energy be held in about three years under the auspices of the United Nations.

Continuing Advisory Committee

lo provide for adequate advance planning, the joint draft resolution proposed that the Advisory Committee

stablished at the ninth session and composed of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and the United States be continued with the same terms of reference, and that the Secretary-General, with the advice of that Com- mittee, should determine an appropriate place and date, issue invitations to the conference in accordance with the 1954 resolution, prepare and circulate an agenda and provide the necessary staff and services This would mean that all Members of the United Na- tions or of the specialized agencies would be invited to participate and to include among their representatives individual experts competent in the atomic energy field, and that the interested specialized agencies would be invited to designate persons to represent them.

The draft resolution also suggested that the Secre tary-General and the Advisory Committee consult with

the appropriate specialized agencies in the course of the


Other draft resolutions submitted to the First Com- mittee had a bearing on later revisions to this joint proposal. Two were sponsored by India, joined sub sequently by Burma, Egypt, Indonesia, Syria and Yugoslavia. The first of these provided that the Assem- bly would express its satisfaction at the impressive re sults achieved by the Atoms for Peace Conference in Geneva in facilitating the free flow of scientific knowl- edge relating to production and peaceful uses of atomic energy; believe that the conference had laid a founda tion for the fuller exchange of information on the de- velopment of atomic energy for the ends of human welfare; deem it desirable that further such conferences be convened when appropriate; decide to continue the Advisory Committee; request the Secretary-General, acting on the advice of that Committee, to make pro- posals for the convening of future conferences, to con- sider the holding of seminars on the various aspects of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, to consider whether dissemination of knowledge on the subject could be encouraged, and to report to the Assembly as ap- propriate.

The second draft resolution sponsored by India and later by the other five states provided that the Assembly would, among other things, consider that the constitu- tion and functions of the proposed International Atomic


Energy Agency should be based on the consensus of views expressed in the Assembly and the comments of interested governments and should be approved by the Assembly. The Assembly would also decide that the relationship of the proposed Agency with the United Nations should provide, first, for submission to the Assembly of annual reports and other information, as required, relating to the work of the Agency and, second for consideration by the Agency and its governing body of resolutions of the Assembly relating to the Agency and submission of reports thereon to the Assembly. It would appoint 4 committee of representatives, to be nominated later, to implement the purposes of thi: proposal

For Prohibiting Atomic Weapons

A draft resolution submitted by the U.S.S.R. stressed the need to prohibit atomic weapons. It provided that the Assembly would call on all states to continue their efforts to reach an agreement on the prohibition of atomic weapons; express the hope that an International Agency for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy would soon be established “within the framework of the United Nations”; consider periodic conferences desirable for exchanging experience in the extensive use of atomic energy in science, industry, agriculture, medi cine and other spheres; request the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps to convene a conference not later than 1957; and consider useful the founding of an international periodical organ of atomic scientists, de voted to the problems connected with the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and request the Secretary-General to arrange for the publication of this periodical in 1956

Later the Soviet Union submitted an addition to this draft resolution to provide for continuance of the Ad visory Committee and for a conference of experts designated by the states concerned to consider jointly the drafting of the statute of the International Atomix Energy Agency

rhe Soviet Union's position was explained by V. \ Kuznetsov, The main efforts of scientists and engineers working in the field of atomic energy, he said, should be directed not toward production of nuclear weapons

Conversing with Sir Pierson Dixon left, permanent representative of the United King- dom to the United Nations, is V. V Kuznetsov, Firs: Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union


but toward the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Unul atomic weapons were prohibited and the threat of an atomic war removed, the main efforts of states would inevitably be concentrated on the military uses of atomic energy, he declared.

[he Soviet Union supported the idea of holding periodic conferences such as the one in Geneva, annu ally if possible. The more nations participating, of course, the more fruitful would be the results. He de- plored that scientists of the People’s Republic of China and of the German Democratic Republic had been denied the opportunity to participate at Geneva

The Soviet Union was ready to contribute a certain amount of fissionable materials to the international fund aS SOON as an agreement was reached on establishment of the international Agency, which his Government sup ported, But it was necessary to observe certain provi sions to ensure that Agency’s success. Thus, Mr Kuznetsov said, no state should be barred from con tributing, even if not a Member of the United Nations or of the specialized agencies. And no state should be barred from membership in the Agency or from the right of being among the Agency’s founders.

No country or group of countries should be placed in a privileged position, he added. The Agency should not be a tool of political or economic pressure, but should be based on the principles of equality, mutual benefit and respect for the interests of each member It should make its assistance available to any Member state. Assistance should not be conditioned by demands of a political, economic or military nature incompatible with the sovereign rights of states. The activity of the Agency should not be detrimental to the security of states.

Bearing in mind the existing close relation between the production of atomic energy for peaceful and mili- tary purposes and the fact that the Agency’s activities would be closely connected with the use of dangerous fissionable materials, adequate supervision and control over the activities of the Agency by a representative international body were necessary, Mr. Kuznetsov con- tinued. The Soviet Union believed that the relations between the Agency and the United Nations should be closer than those between the United Nations and the specialized agencies. The Agency should be established within the framework of the United Nations and should submit progress reports to the Security Council and the General Assembly. If some question concerning the security of any state arose in connection with the work of the Agency, the necessary decisions should be taken by the Security Council which had the main responsi- bility for maintaining international peace and security It would also be useful if the Agency cooperated with other organs of the United Nations.

All the regions of the world, Mr. Kuznetsov stated, and countries rendering as well as receiving aid in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy should be represented in the governing body.

The Soviet Union considered that a meeting of ex- perts of states should consider the preparation of the statute of the Agency.

At one stage of the debate, Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold said that at a meeting of the Administra- tive Committee on Coordination, which included him- self and the heads of the specialized agencies, the responsibilities of the various agencies in the field of the peaceful uses of atomic energy had been studied, with special reference to the coordination of activities

Their decision recalled that specialized agencies were concerned with different technical aspects of the question and had participated in the Geneva confer- ence. The Administrative Committee (acc) had noted the Secretary-General’s proposal to continue the Ad- visory Committee for assistance on those atomic matters in which responsibilities might be entrusted to the Secretariat.

Acc had also noted proposals by certain delegations regarding further scientific conferences. As several spe cialized agencies were especially active in atomic ques- tions, acc had unanimously recognized the need for close coordination of their present activities and the establishment of suitable liaison with the Advisory Committee

Subcommittee Established

Acc had therefore decided to set up a subcommittee composed of the heads of the various agencies con- cerned or their representatives. The link between the subcommittee and the Advisory Committee would be provided by the Secretary-General as chairman of both, and the specialized agencies would communicate their views to the Advisory Committee through their repre- sentatives on the subcommittee. The subcommittee would further help to coordinate the activities of the various members of the United Nations family of organizations in that field.

[he representative of Sweden, Rickard Sandler, observed in the general debate that the question of the relationship between the United Nations and the pro- posed Agency was obviously within the competence of the United Nations, which would be one of the parties to any agreement negotiated. It was not sufficient to say that negotiations would proceed after the Agency was established. Two problems arose at the outset: which organ would be charged with negotiating on behalf of the United Nations, and what kind of preparatory work should be done in view of those negotiations

The known precedents had been indicated in a Sec retariat paper submitted last year, but, Mr. Sandler felt, there was another possibility—to charge the Secretary General with the mandate. Since the Agency might represent a great number of Member states including, he hoped, all the permanent members of the Security Council, he felt that, when negotiations were to begin, the Secretary-General should be asked to undertake those negotiations, rather than a negotiating organ which would exclude every Member adhering to the Agency. Under the Charter, the Secretary-General had the authority and the duty to represent the entire Or- ganization, and objective judgment could be expected from him.

Furthermore, Mr. Sandler felt that the. Secretary- General and his well-qualified staff might usefully un- dertake preparatory work parallel to the work being done on the statute itself. It would be much more prac- ticable to consider the advantages and disadvantages of various possible solutions prior to the final establish-

ment of the statute of the Agency; otherwise the United Nations would have to accept whatever the Agency pro- posed or request the inclusion of amendments in a statute already ratified by several states.

Mr. Sandler remarked that there seemed to be gen- eral agreement on the right of the Assembly to receive reports on the activities of the Agency. In order to safe- guard the independence of the Agency, it might be wise to proceed in two phases so that the Agency would submit a resume of its work to the Secretary-General, who would then report to the Assembly. The Secretary- General could be assisted in technical matters by the Advisory Committee,

On October 19, Mr. Pastore explained that the Unit- ed States, along with the co-sponsors and after consulta- tion with other delegations, had made certain changes in the joint draft resolution which they believed re flected the consensus expressed in the Committee as to both future technical conferences and the international agency. The operative part of the revised draft now dealt separately with these two matters

On the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the previous provisions were modified so that the Secretary-General would act in consultation with the appropriate spe cialized agencies, as well as on the advice of the Ad visory Committee, in connection with arrangements for a future conference, The specialized agencies would be invited to consult with the Secretary-General and the Advisory Committee to ensure proper coordination between the proposed second international techincal conference and such technical conferences as they or their affiliated non-governmental scientific organiza tions might convene on more specialized aspects, The Advisory Committee would be continued to assist the Secretary-General in carrying out the provisions of the resolution

For Study by Secretary-General

In the section dealing with the Agency, the revised proposal added provisions whereby the Assembly would recommend that the sponsoring governments take into account the views expressed during the Assembly ses sion as well as the comments transmitted directly by governments and do everything possible to establish the Agency without delay. Further, the Assembly would welcome the announced intention of the sponsoring governments to invite all Members of the United Na- tions or the specialized agencies to participate in a conference on the final text of the statute of the Agency. Also it would request the Secretary-General, in con- sultation with the Advisory Committee, to study the relationship of the Agency to the United Nations and to transmit the results of their study to the sponsoring governments before that conference.

Noting the concern of some delegations lest the pro- cedures for negotiating the draft statute would result in governments being confronted with a final text for ratification without adequate opportunity for exchang- ing views, Mr. Pastore declared that the negotiating governments had never intended this. They did not regard the draft statute as the final document. All views would be taken into account, he said. The United States was prepared to give assurances that a final statute would not be presented to governments without adequate opportunity for exchanging views. Comments on the draft statute would not be rejected without care- ful consideration and consultation with the govern- ments making them. Thus the sponsors believed they could come forward with a draft statute based on a consensus which would enjoy the widest support.

However, to ensure that they would have reached a wide enough consensus they were willing to take an other step: they were prepared to invite all the Mem bers of the United Nations or of the specialized agen cies to a conference on the final text. While such a conference would delay establishment of the Agency, some sacrifice of time might be worthwhile in the interests of launching it with as wide support as possible

As for the relationship of the Agency to the United Nations, the study by the Secretary-General had been suggested in view of the concern of some delegations which did not wish to leave this matter entirely in abeyance during the time remaining before the Agency was established. Of course the final decision did not rest with cither the sponsoring governments or the Secretary-General, but had to be determined by the total membership of the Agency, and the agreement of relationship which they proposed had to be approved by the General Assembly.

Anthony Nutting, of the United Kingdom, was one of the many representatives who expressed the hope that the constructive debate on what he termed was one of the greatest efforts of the present age would close with the unanimous adoption of the revised proposal

In Interest of Unanimity

In view of the Secretary-General’s statement regard ing the decision by the Administrative Committee on Coordination, Dr. H. R. Wei, of China, withdrew his delegation’s amendment to the draft resolution in the hope, too, that this action would contribute to unanim- ity. The Chinese amendment would have provided for a recommendation by the Assembly that the United Nations in its programs of assistance, and the special- ized agencies in their respective fields, shoul give wherever possible special emphasis to the promotion